Page Summary: Clips, Quotes & Links to ~40 Science News Reports that explain: i) heme iron (from eating animals) is associated with higher rates of heart disease, cancers & diabetes; ii) we can easily obtain sufficient iron from plant food sources; iii) iron-deficiency anemia is rare & occurs in similar rates among people on omnivore or plant-based diets; iv) non-prescribed iron supplements pose risks.
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Medical Journal of Australia: “Vegetarians who eat a varied and well balanced diet are not at any greater risk of iron deficiency anaemia than non-vegetarians.
A diet rich in wholegrains, legumes, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, iron-fortified cereals and green leafy vegetables provides an adequate iron intake.
Vitamin C and other organic acids enhance non-haem iron absorption, a process that is carefully regulated by the gut.
People with low iron stores or higher physiological need for iron will tend to absorb more iron and excrete less.”
Reference: “Iron and vegetarian diets”, Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S11-S16; https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2013/199/4/iron-and-vegetarian-diets
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Dr Michael Greger clip titled “The Safety of Heme vs. Non-Heme Iron.” The introduction states: “Heme iron, the type found predominantly in blood and muscle… may increase the risk of cancer, stroke, heart disease, and metabolic syndrome…” Clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cq84RZVR_C0
Text transcript: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-safety-of-heme-vs-non-heme-iron/
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Regards haem/heme iron (from eating animals) and coronary heart disease (CHD) the European Heart Journal states: “High dietary haem iron intake was associated with a 65% increase in CHD risk…” regards a study of 16,136 women.
Reference: “Dietary haem iron and coronary heart disease in women”, European Heart Journal, 2005 Feb;26(3):257-62; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15618055
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Regards coronary heart disease (CHD) the European Journal of Nutrition reports a meta-analysis study of “131,553 participants… Combined results indicated that participants with higher heme iron intake [through eating animals] had a 31% increased risk of CHD, compared with those with lower intake…”
Reference: “Is heme iron intake associated with risk of coronary heart disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies”, Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(2):395-400; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23708150
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Regards coronary heart disease (CHD), from a 2014 report in the Journal of Nutrition: “Heme iron was found to be positively associated with CHD incidence”. The relative risk was 1.57, meaning a 57% higher rate of CHD. In contrast, “total iron was inversely associated.”
Reference: “Dietary iron intake and body iron stores are associated with risk of coronary heart disease in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, J Nutr. 2014 Mar;144(3):359-66; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24401818
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Regards iron and cardiovascular disease, specifically peripheral arterial disease (PAD), from a 2010 report in the Journal of Vascular Surgery, the study’s conclusion: “These data demonstrate statistical correlations between levels of ferritin, inflammatory biomarkers, and mortality in this subset of patients with PAD.”
Ferritin is “a protein produced in mammalian metabolism which serves to store iron in the tissues.” (Google definition)
Reference: “Ferritin levels, inflammatory biomarkers, and mortality in peripheral arterial disease: a substudy of the Iron (Fe) and Atherosclerosis Study (FeAST) Trial”, J Vasc Surg. 2010 Jun;51(6):1498-503; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20304584
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Regards heme iron and cancer of the endometrium, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reports a study of 60,895 women: “A comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile showed a 20-30% higher risk of endometrial cancer for higher intakes of heme iron…”
Reference: “Long-term dietary heme iron and red meat intake in relation to endometrial cancer risk”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):848-54; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952183
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Regards heme iron from consumption of red meat and breast cancer, a study of 193,742 women reported: “Heme iron intake was positively associated with breast cancer risk overall and all cancer stages … Our findings suggest that high consumption of red meat and processed meat may increase risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Added nitrite and heme iron may partly contribute to these observed associations.”
Reference: “Red and processed meat, nitrite, and heme iron intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study”, International Journal of Cancer, 2016 Apr 1;138(7):1609-18; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26505173
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Regards heme iron (from animals) and colorectal cancer (CRC), a 2013 meta-analysis of 8 studies reports on the raised relative risk (RR): “The summary RR of CRC for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.14”. In other words, a 14% higher rate of cancer.
Reference: “Intakes of heme iron and zinc and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies”, Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jun;24(6):1175-83; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568532
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From a 2014 report by the American Association for Cancer Research: “Iron has been suggested as a risk factor for different types of cancers mainly due to its prooxidant activity … Globally, on the basis of the systematic review and the meta-analysis results, a higher intake of heme iron has shown a tendency toward a positive association with cancer risk.”
The phrase “positive association” means a higher risk of developing cancer.
The relative risks they found associated “for an increase of 1 mg/day of heme iron intake” were: 12% more lung cancer; 8% more colorectal cancer; 12% more colon cancer; 3% more breast cancer.
Reference: “Iron and cancer risk–a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence”, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jan;23(1):12-31;
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A 2009 report in the Cancer Science journal states: “iron works as a double-edged sword, and its excess is a risk for cancer, presumably via generation of reactive oxygen species. Thus far, pathological conditions such as hemochromatosis, chronic viral hepatitis B and C, exposure to asbestos fibers, as well as endometriosis have been recognized as iron overload-associated risks for human cancer. Indeed, iron is carcinogenic in animal experiments… a recent epidemiological study reported that iron reduction by phlebotomy decreased cancer risk in the apparently normal population. These results warrant reconsideration of the role of iron in carcinogenesis and suggest that fine control of body iron stores would be a wise strategy for cancer prevention.”
Reference: “Role of iron in carcinogenesis: cancer as a ferrotoxic disease”, Cancer Sci. 2009 Jan;100(1):9-16; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19018762
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A 2008 study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute concluded: “Iron reduction was associated with lower cancer risk and mortality.”
The hazard ratio (HR) for people in the “iron reduction” group was 0.65; meaning a 35% lower occurrence of cancer.
Compared to those in the control group, “among patients with new cancers, those in the iron reduction group had“:
– lower cancer-specific mortality with a HR of 0.39 ie. 61% less death from cancer.
– lower all-cause mortality with a HR of 0.49 ie. 51% less death from all causes.
The reports also states: “Mean ferritin [iron] levels across all 6-monthly visits were similar in patients in the iron reduction and control groups who developed cancer but were lower among all patients who did not develop cancer than among those who did …”
The study was a “randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial” covering 1277 patients.
Reference: “Decreased cancer risk after iron reduction in patients with peripheral arterial disease: results from a randomized trial”, J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jul 16;100(14):996-1002; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18612130
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Regards heme iron consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a meta-analysis reported in BMC Medicine concludes: “Higher heme iron intake and increased body iron stores were significantly associated with a greater risk of T2DM.” The pooled relative risk (RR) for T2DM was 1.33, meaning a 33% higher rate “in individuals with the highest level of heme iron intake, compared with those with the lowest level.”
Reference: “Dietary iron intake, body iron stores, and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, BMC Med. 2012 Oct 10;10:119; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046549
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Regards iron and neurotoxicity, a 2009 report in the journal Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care states: “an increased level of brain iron may promote neurotoxicity due to free radical formation, lipid peroxidation, and ultimately, cellular death. Advanced neuroimaging techniques and pathological studies have demonstrated increased brain iron with aging, and increased iron deposition has also been observed in patients with a constellation of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke.”
Reference: “Role of iron in neurotoxicity: a cause for concern in the elderly?” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Jan;12(1):22-9; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057183
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From a 2007 report in the Neurotherapeutics journal: “increased iron has also been shown in many chronic neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. In vitro studies have demonstrated that excessive iron can lead to free radical production, which can promote neurotoxicity…”
Reference: “Iron in chronic brain disorders: imaging and neurotherapeutic implications”, Neurotherapeutics, 2007 Jul;4(3):371-86; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17599703
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From a 2004 report in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: “In Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its neurotoxin-induced models … significant accumulation of iron occurs in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The iron is thought to be in a labile pool, unbound to ferritin, and is thought to have a pivotal role to induce oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons via Fenton chemistry… This scenario is supported by studies in both human and neurotoxin-induced parkinsonism…”
Reference: “Ironing iron out in Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases with iron chelators: a lesson from 6-hydroxydopamine and iron chelators, desferal and VK-28”, Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Mar;1012:306-25; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15105275
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From a 2007 report in Medical Hypotheses journal: “Dietary epidemiological studies indicate correlations between the consumption of red meat and/or processed meat and cancer of the colon, rectum, stomach, pancreas, bladder, endometrium and ovaries, prostate, breast and lung, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.
The correlation of all these major diseases with dietary red meat indicates the presence of factors in red meat that damage biological components.
This hypothesis will focus on the biochemistry of heme compounds and their oxidative processes.
Raw red meat contains high levels of oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin and oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and cytochromes in muscle and other tissues.
Cooked and processed meat contain hemichromes and hemochromes …
Heme catalyzed oxidations can damage lipids, proteins, DNA and other nucleic acids and various components of biological systems. Heme catalysis with hydroperoxide intermediates can initiate further oxidations some of which would result in oxidative chain reactions.
Biochemical and tissue free radical damage caused by heme catalyzed oxidations is similar to that resulting from ionizing radiation. Oxidative biochemical damage is widespread in diseases.
It is apparent that decreasing the amount of dietary red meat will limit the level of oxidative catalysts in the tissues of the body.
Increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits elevates the levels of antioxidative components, for example, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, lycopene, cysteine-glutathione and various phytochemicals …”
Reference: “Heme of consumed red meat can act as a catalyst of oxidative damage and could initiate colon, breast and prostate cancers, heart disease and other diseases.” Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(3):562-4; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17045417
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From an article in Permanente Journal co-authored by several medical doctors: “Plant-based foods that are rich in iron include kidney beans, black beans, soybeans, spinach, raisins, cashews, oatmeal, cabbage, and tomato juice. Iron stores may be lower in individuals who follow a plant-based diet and consume little or no animal products. However, the American Dietetic Association states that iron-deficiency anemia is RARE even in individuals who follow a plant-based diet…” excerpt from “Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets” at – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662288/
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Medical Journal of Australia: “The World Cancer Research Fund now considers the evidence convincing that a high intake of red meat causes colorectal cancer. One mechanism that has been proposed, and confirmed in ileostomy studies, is that haem iron facilitates the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds.”
Reference: “A plant-based diet — good for us and for the planet”, Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S11-S16; https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2013/199/4/plant-based-diet-good-us-and-planet
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A 2016 report in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition concludes: “since high iron stores are also a risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that not only vegetarians but also non-vegetarians should regularly control their iron status and improve their diet regarding the content and bioavailability of iron by consuming more plants and less meat.”
Reference: “The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis”, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2016 Nov 23:1-16; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27880062
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The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “An appropriately planned well-balanced vegetarian diet is compatible with an adequate iron status. Although the iron stores of vegetarians may be reduced, the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia in vegetarians is not significantly different from that in omnivores…”
Reference: “Iron status of vegetarians”, Am J Clin Nutr., 1994 May; 59(5 Suppl):1233S-1237S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8172127
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Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: “Iron-deficiency anemia is no more common in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians and vegetarian diets typically include the same or higher amounts of iron than non-vegetarian diets.
Plant-sourced iron is non-heme, which is susceptible to compounds that both inhibit (e.g., phytates and polyphenolics) and enhance (e.g., vitamin C and organic acids) its absorption. However, individuals adapt absorption of non-heme iron more effectively than heme iron and are able to adapt to low iron intakes over time.
There is a wide array of iron-rich food choices in the plant kingdom. Leafy greens and legumes are excellent sources of iron and myriad other nutrients, so it is advantageous to include these foods often. Other good choices include soy products, dark chocolate, blackstrap molasses, tahini, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, raisins, prunes, and cashews.
In order to enhance absorption, consume iron-rich foods in combination with foods high in vitamin C- and organic acid-rich foods. This combination improves solubility, thereby facilitating absorption. Examples include a green smoothie with leafy greens (iron) and fruit (vitamin C), salad greens (iron) with tomatoes (vitamin C), or a bean-based chili (iron) with tomato sauce (vitamin C).”
Reference: “Plant-based nutrition for healthcare professionals: implementing diet as a primary modality in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease”, J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017 May; 14(5): 355–368; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466942/
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In an article titled “Plant versus Animal Iron” Dr Michael Greger MD explains “It is commonly thought that those who eat plant-based diets may be more prone to iron deficiency, but it turns out that they’re no more likely to suffer from iron deficiency anemia than anybody else. This may be because not only do those eating meat-free diets tend to get more fiber, magnesium, and vitamins like A, C, and E, but they also get more iron…
iron intake from meat is associated with significantly higher risk for heart disease. This is thought to be because iron can act as a pro-oxidant, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis by oxidizing cholesterol with free radicals. The risk has been quantified as a 27% increase in coronary heart disease risk for every 1 milligram of heme iron consumed daily.
The same has been found for stroke risk… Researchers found that the intake of meat (heme) iron, but not plant (non-heme) iron, was associated with an increased risk of stroke.
The researchers also found that higher intake of heme iron – but not total or plant (non-heme) iron – was significantly associated with greater risk for type 2 diabetes. There may be a 16% increase in risk for type 2 diabetes for every 1 milligram of heme iron consumed daily.
The same has also been found for cancer, with up to 12% increased risk for every milligram of daily heme iron exposure…
Taking into account our leading killers – heart disease, cancer, and diabetes – the healthiest source of iron appears to be non-heme iron, found naturally in abundance in whole grains, beans, split peas, chickpeas, lentils, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruits, nuts, and seeds…”
For the full article https://nutritionfacts.org/2017/06/15/plant-versus-animal-iron/
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A 2011 study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association concluded from an analysis of more than 13,000 people that: “Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were HIGHER for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians… These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and could be recommended for weight management without compromising diet quality.” (Emphasis added)
Reference: “A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004,” J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jun;111(6):819-27; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616194/
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From the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “hemoglobin concentrations and the risk of iron deficiency anemia are SIMILAR for vegans compared with omnivores and other vegetarians. Vegans often consume large amounts of vitamin C–rich foods that markedly improve the absorption of the nonheme iron…” – http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/89/5/1627S.full
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Medical Journal of Australia: “Iron – Cereal products are the main source of dietary iron for all Australians (a bigger contributor than meat, according to consumption data)… Cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds and fortified foods were selected mostly in combination with vitamin C-rich foods, as vitamin C enhances iron absorption. However, absorption concerns are less of an issue than previously thought. Even though iron requirements have been set higher for vegetarians, those with lower stores of iron or higher physiological need will absorb more iron and excrete less iron — an important adaptive mechanism.”
Reference: “Meeting the nutrient reference values on a vegetarian diet”, Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S33-S40; https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2013/199/4/meeting-nutrient-reference-values-vegetarian-diet
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From the introduction of a lengthy article about iron by registered dietitian Jack Norris RD:
“You do not need to worry about iron if you are otherwise healthy and eat a varied vegetarian or vegan diet. If you think your iron stores might be low, you can increase iron absorption by:
– Adding a source of vitamin C at meals (see Table 2 of good vitamin C sources below).
– Avoiding tea and coffee at meals.
– Increasing legume (peanuts, beans, lentils, peas) intake.
– Cooking foods (especially water based acidic foods like tomato sauce) in cast iron skillets.
If your concerns persist, you should have a doctor measure your iron status. If your iron stores are too low, your doctor might suggest eating meat or taking an iron supplement. Anemia in meat-eaters is normally treated with large doses of supplemental iron, not with eating more meat. Similarly, vegetarians with anemia do not need to start eating meat but can also be treated with supplemental iron and vitamin C. If your doctor insists that you eat meat, you might want to show him or her this article.
It is important for any vegan with iron deficiency to correct it because during iron deficiency, the body has a tendency to absorb too much manganese. Luckily, vitamin C increases iron absorption but does not increase manganese absorption…”
For the detailed article see http://veganhealth.org/articles/iron
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A 2009 clip by Dr Greger is titled “Are Iron Pills Good for You? A question as to whether cancer and Alzheimer’s disease can be considered “ferrotoxic” diseases…” It’s at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8rV8V1h7u0 and https://nutritionfacts.org/video/are-iron-pills-good-for-you/
Quote: “What about iron? Shorter lifespan, same lifespan, or longer lifespan? Shorter lifespan.
In fact, last summer an editorial in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute questioned whether cancer itself was a “ferrotoxic” disease, after a study showed that donating blood to rid oneself of excess iron appeared to cut cancer death rates in half. And with advanced neuroimaging techniques, iron accumulation in the brain is being increasingly linked to neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s.
Now if you’re pregnant, you need enough blood for two. Or, if you have iron deficiency anemia, then you may need iron supplements. But for most people, taking extra iron is a bad idea.
And in fact, that may be one reason there are higher cancer rates among meat-eaters – because they get heme iron, or “blood” iron, which our body is unable to downregulate the absorption of.”
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“The good news is that you can get all the iron you need from a vegan diet because there are lots of plant foods containing good amounts of this mineral…
Good plant sources of iron include lentils, chickpeas, beans, tofu, cashew nuts, chia seeds, ground linseed, hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds, kale, dried apricots and figs, raisins, quinoa and fortified breakfast cereal.
There are lots of factors that affect the amount of iron your body can absorb from your diet. The most important factor is your body’s need for iron: more is absorbed when your body is short of iron, and less is absorbed when your stores are full. Tea, coffee and some substances in plant foods may make it difficult for your body to absorb iron. On the other hand, vitamin C increases iron absorption. Good sources include pepper, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kiwi fruit, oranges, strawberries, pineapple, grapefruit and orange juice…” from https://www.vegansociety.com/resources/nutrition-and-health/nutrients/iron
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Clip by Dr Michael Greger M.D. titled “Risk Associated with Iron Supplements” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7tcNrHSJRU
Excerpts: “Iron is a double-edged sword. If we don’t absorb enough, we risk anemia; but if absorb too much, we may increase our risk of cancer, heart disease, and a number of inflammatory conditions. Because the human body has no mechanism to rid itself of excess iron, one should choose plant-based (non-heme) sources, over which our body has some control…
Only people with a confirmed diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia should consider supplementing their iron intake, and even then, it can be risky. A recent study found that a significant increase in oxidative stress happened within the bodies of women on iron supplements.
And so, before going on iron supplements, I would suggest talking to your physician about first trying to treat it through diet alone—by eating lots of healthy iron-rich foods, like chickpeas and pumpkin seeds, while consuming vitamin C-rich foods at the same meal, such as citrus, tropical fruits, broccoli, bell peppers, which improve plant iron absorption, while at the same time avoiding drinking tea and coffee with your meals, which can impair iron absorption…”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/risk-associated-with-iron-supplements/
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A 2010 article by Dr Michael Greger M.D. titled “Iron during Pregnancy” an excerpt: “Last year, we learned that iron supplements were harmful, but what about for pregnant women? It’s a chief component of most prenatal vitamins. Now, this is for non-anemic women. Obviously, if you’re iron deficient, no matter who you are, you may need extra iron. But if your blood count’s okay, is supplemental iron during pregnancy harmful, harmless, or helpful? It’s harmful. “Non-anaemic pregnant women should not take iron supplements.” But why?…” The article is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/iron-during-pregnancy/
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This site contains pages with hundreds of science reports on the higher rates of disease & death associated with eating red meat, dairy, chicken/poultry, eggs, fish/seafood & of the lower rates associated with eating healthy plant-based diets high in fruits & vegetables & nuts.
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From “Iron: A Vegan Nutrition Primer” by a Registered Dietician – Excerpt: “Getting plenty of iron on a vegan diet is easy. Plant foods can be among the richest sources of this nutrient. For example, ½ cup of cooked lentils has nearly twice the iron as four ounces of beef—a food generally thought of as an iron superstar. It’s not surprising that vegans and vegetarians often consume more iron than meat-eaters…” – http://www.theveganrd.com/vegan-nutrition-primers/iron-a-vegan-nutrition-primer
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From a list titled “Foods highest in Iron” some of the plant foods are listed below “based on levels per 200-Calorie serving” – Source: http://nutritiondata.self.com/foods-000119000000000000000.html#ixzz4tJldoBLF
Spices, thyme, dried… 90mg
Spices, parsley, dried… 71mg
Salt, table… 66mg
Spearmint, dried [mint]… 61mg
Spices, marjoram, dried… 61mg
Spearmint, fresh [mint]… 54mg
Jamba Juice beverage: Juice, Wheatgrass… 48mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, Ralston Enriched Bran flakes… 44mg
Parsley, freeze-dried… 40mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, Kellogg’s All-bran Complete Wheat Flakes… 39mg
Spices, dill weed, dried… 39mg
Chrysanthemum, garland, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt… 37mg
Seaweed, irishmoss, raw… 36mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, Kellogg’s Complete Oat Bran Flakes… 36mg
Spices, cumin seed… 35mg
Thyme, fresh… 35mg
Parsley, raw… 34mg
Babyfood, cereal, oatmeal, with honey, dry… 34mg
Spices, basil, dried… 33mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, General Mills, Multi-Grain Cheerios… 33mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, General Mills, Corn Flakes… 32mg
Borage, raw… 31mg
Spinach, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt… 31mg
Cereals, Malt-O-Meal, plain, dry… 31mg
Dill weed, fresh… 31mg
Cereals, Malt-O-Meal, plain, prepared with water, without salt… 31mg
Pumpkin leaves, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt… 30mg
Spices, coriander leaf, dried [Chinese parsley, cilantro]… 30mg
Borage, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt… 29mg
Spices, oregano, dried… 29mg
Jute, potherb, raw… 28mg
Spices, savory, ground… 28mg
Basil, fresh… 28mg
Spices, bay leaf… 27mg
Spices, chervil, dried… 27mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, Malt-O-Meal, Puffed Wheat Cereal… 27mg
Babyfood, cereal, barley, dry… 26mg
Coffee, brewed, espresso, restaurant-prepared, decaffeinated… 26mg
Purslane, raw… 25mg
Spinach, raw… 24mg
Spices, celery seed… 23mg
Spices, pepper, black… 23mg
Chard, swiss, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt… 23mg
Babyfood, cereal, whole wheat, with apples, dry… 22mg
Hearts of palm, canned… 22mg
Babyfood, cereal, barley, prepared with whole milk… 22mg
Cereals ready-to-eat, Malt-O-Meal, Puffed Rice Cereal… 22mg
Spices, anise seed… 22mg
Spices, tarragon, dried… 22mg
Dock, raw… 22mg
Turnip greens, canned… 22mg
Amaranth leaves, cooked, boiled, drained… 22mg
Seaweed, spirulina, raw… 21mg
Asparagus, raw… 21mg
Spices, fenugreek seed… 21mg
Cornsalad, raw… 21mg
Amaranth leaves, raw… 20mg
Seaweed, spirulina, dried… 20mg
Lettuce, butterhead raw… 19mg
Chard, swiss, raw… 19mg
Spices, rosemary, dried… 18mg
Swamp cabbage, (skunk cabbage), raw… 18mg
Cereals, oats… 18mg
Cabbage, chinese (pak-choi), cooked, boiled, drained… 17mg
Jute, potherb, cooked, boiled, drained… 17mg
Spinach, canned… 17mg
Tea, herb, chamomile, brewed… 16mg
Turnip greens, canned, no salt added… 16mg
… The list goes on!
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This set of articles were compiled for
Pages on this Site:
Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.
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Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.
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Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.
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Excerpts & links to articles in news media science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.
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This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.
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This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.
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This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.
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Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.
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Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.
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A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”
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For Archives of Related Memes see:
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This site’s original 2012 page with excerpts from articles in science journals and news media about how what we choose to eat can: i) accelerate or slow down climate change and the related environmental catastrophes we face; and ii) increase or reduce our risks for chronic illness and disease. The evidence and body of opinion against the animal agriculture livestock industry is particularly compelling and damning.
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