Page of Quotes & Links to Science Journal Studies on the Great Health Benefits of Eating Fruits & Vegetables. These include lower risks for cancers (breast, lung, liver, gastrointestinal, colorectal, stomach), hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, weight gain, type 2 diabetes mellitus, eye diseases, dementia, osteoporosis, depression, asthma, pulmonary lung disease & rheumatoid arthritis.
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Regards fruit & vegetables a study of 833,234 people was published in the British Medical Journal in 2014. It reported that people with the higher consumption of fruit & vegetables have the lower death (mortality) rates. Their conclusion: “This meta-analysis provides further evidence that a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality.”
Reference: “Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, BMJ 2014; 349; at http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4490
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Dr Greger clip titled “What are the Healthiest Foods? Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which foods best supply shortfall nutrients while avoiding disease-promoting components?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnqVN56EjrM
Summary: “So, the foods to emphasize in one’s diet are unprocessed, unrefined, plant-derived foods, which in general lack the disease-promoting components, and, as the Dietary Guidelines Committee put it, these foods contain not only the essential vitamins and minerals, but also hundreds of naturally-occurring phytonutrients that may protect against cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and other chronic health conditions…
So, that’s why people eating more plant-based tend to end up eating a more nutrient-dense dietary pattern, closer to the current federal dietary recommendations. And, the more plant-based we get, apparently, the better.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/what-are-the-healthiest-foods/
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The findings of a study on 135,335 individuals in 18 nations as reported during 2017 in The Lancet medical journal: “Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with [meaning lower rates, a lower risk of] major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality… fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with [meaning lower risk of] non-cardiovascular death and total mortality… For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality…”
Reference: “Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study”, The Lancet, 2017; at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32253-5/fulltext
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Dr Greger MD clip “Number 1 Anticancer Vegetable” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tAAehC4BYs
Excerpt: “the two best families of vegetables for cancer prevention are the cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, kale, and cabbage. And the alium family vegetables like garlic, onions and leeks.” Spinach and radicchio also rate highly.
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Regards mortality rates – meaning death – a 2016 study reports: “increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with reductions in all-cause mortality, with the highest risk reduction seen up to 7 serves/day or more of fruit and vegetables…”
The study was based on 6038 participants with “a mean follow-up of 6.2 years.”
Reference: “Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large Australian cohort study”, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2016, 13:9; at
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A 2012 study in the European Journal of Nutrition, that is described as “a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature” states as some of their findings: “For hypertension, CHD [coronary heart disease], and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated [meaning lower rates of cancer] with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus…
There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], and RA [rheumatoid arthritis] indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases…”
Reference: “Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases”, Eur J Nutr. 2012 Sep; 51(6): 637–663; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419346/
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A short clip by Dr Greger MD titled “Which Fruit Fights Cancer Better?” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9dWhGlkvGU
Excerpts: “The ability of eleven common fruits to suppress cancer cell growth in vitro was compared… at high peach concentrations, cancer cell proliferation drops about 10%. But, bananas and grapefruits work about four times better, dropping cancer growth rates by about 40%. Red grapes, strawberries, and apples do even better—cutting cancer cell growth up to half, at only half the dose.
But, these two fruits are the winners, causing a dramatic drop in cancer proliferation at just tiny doses: lemons and cranberries. So, if you look at the effective dose required to suppress liver cancer cell proliferation, apples are more powerful than bananas, but cranberries win the day. And, there was no effective dose listed for orange, pear, or pineapple, since they didn’t appear to affect this cancer cell growth at all.”
Text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/which-fruit-fights-cancer-better/
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A 2014 report is titled “Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk.” It is a study of more than 500,000 people from 10 European countries. The findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and include: “Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancer… The purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far… The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated [meaning lower rates] with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated [was lower in occurrence] with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated [occurred less] with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated [lower rates] with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk [meaning that eating plant fiber is associated with a slightly lower risk of breast cancer]…”
Reference: “Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014 Jul;100 Suppl 1:394S-8S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24920034
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Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: “Plant foods exclusively contain two critical nutrients: fiber and phytonutrients. Fiber, found in multiple varieties in all intact plant foods, proffers powerful protection of the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and immune systems, while phytonutrients, a vast class of thousands of compounds including glucosinolates, carotenoids, and flavonoids, work synergistically to reduce inflammation and oxidation, providing protection from disease initiation and progression.
Interestingly, longevity, aging, and healthspan investigations provide cellular, mechanistic evidence that support dietary intervention in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
A plant-based diet is a practical way of implementing dietary restriction and may positively impact a variety of metabolic pathways that are under pharmacologic investigation given their potential health benefits in humans. They include inhibition of the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and inflammation and activation of sirtuins and adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK).”
Reference: “Plant-based nutrition for healthcare professionals: implementing diet as a primary modality in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease”, J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017 May; 14(5): 355–368; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466942/
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Dr Greger clip “Which Fruits and Vegetables Boost DNA Repair?” at
Excerpt: “Until fairly recently, it was generally assumed that functions as important as DNA repair were unlikely to be readily affected by nutrition. But if you compare identical twins to fraternal twins, only about a half to three quarters of DNA repair function is genetically determined; the rest we may be able to control…
Thankfully, the regulation of DNA repair may be added to the list of biological processes that are influenced by what we eat—and, specifically, that this might constitute part of the explanation for the cancer-preventive effects of many plant-based foods.
Any plants in particular? Nine fruits and vegetables were tested to see which was better able to boost DNA repair: lemons, persimmons, strawberries, oranges, choy sum (which is like skinny bok choy), broccoli, celery, lettuce, and apples. Which ones made the cut? Lemons, persimmons, strawberries, apples, broccoli, and celery each conferred DNA protection at very low doses.
Here’s what lemons could do, for example. Cut DNA damage by about a third. Was it the vitamin C? No, removing the vitamin C from the lemon extract did not remove the protective effect. However, if you boiled the lemon first for 30 minutes, the effect was lost.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/fruits-vegetables-boost-dna-repair/
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Findings of a report in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2006: “We have examined the current scientific evidence on the relationship between nutrition and the most frequent tumours in the Spanish population: lung, colorectal, prostate, breast and stomach. Consumption of fruit is negatively associated with [meaning lower rates of] cancer of the lung and stomach, possibly with colorectal cancer, but probably not with prostate cancer and breast cancer. Consumption of vegetables probably reduces the risk of colorectal and stomach cancer, but probably is not associated with cancer of the lung, prostate and breast. Consumption of red and processed meat is positively associated with [higher rates of] colorectal cancer and probably with stomach cancer. Animal fat is possibly associated with colorectal cancer and probably with prostate and breast cancer. High alcohol intake increases the risk of colorectal and breast cancer… Obesity is a recognised risk factor of colorectal cancer and breast cancer in postmenopausal women, while foods with a high glycaemic index and glycaemic load possibly increase the risk of colorectal and prostate cancer. The relevance of nutrition on the cancer process is evident…”
Reference: “Nutrition and cancer: the current epidemiological evidence”, Br J Nutr., 2006 Aug;96 Suppl 1:S42-5; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923250
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Dr Greger clip “Slowing Our Metabolism with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HEhfxgZnLw
Summary: “The reason greens are associated with a significantly longer lifespan may be because, like caloric restriction, they improve our energy efficiency… This may be why one of the six most powerful things we can do to live longer is to eat green leafy vegetables…”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/slowing-metabolism-nitrate-rich-vegetables/
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This article by Conor Kerley PhD explores the benefits of “Nitric Oxide [NO] & Dietary Nitrate: Another Reason to Eat Your Vegetables.” A summary quote: “Green, leafy vegetables are consistently reported as one of the healthiest varieties of plant foods, including with regards to protection against heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Some have suggested that nitrate explains a lot of this benefit. Either way, the practicalities are clear: For most people looking to optimize their NO levels and overall health, the consumption of green, leafy vegetables regularly as well as beetroot and rhubarb can be recommended.”
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Dr Michael Greger MD clip “Vegetables rate by nitrate” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJffz_CRISI from the text transcript “a pair of twin Harvard studies found the more fruits and vegetables you eat, the lower your risk of heart disease… If nitrates can boost athletic performance and protect against heart disease, which vegetables have the most… The most powerful protector—green leafy vegetables… The top ten list. Swiss chard [silverbeet] has more; next comes oak leaf lettuce; then beet greens; basil; spring greens, like mesculun mix; butter leaf lettuce; cilantro; rhubarb; and arugula (also known as rocket lettuce).
Now, beet juice would actually be here, but we always want to choose whole foods to maximize the nutrition. As you can see, there was actually one stem vegetable, and it came in #2, even—rhubarb! But eight out of the top ten are green leafies, with the winner by a large margin being arugula! 18 times more nitrate than kale! I may have a new favorite vegetable…” at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/vegetables-rate-by-nitrate/
For more articles and clips like that one see this page of links regards nitrates in food.
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Regards depression the Nutrition journal reports: “This meta-analysis indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption might be inversely associated [meaning lower occurrences] with the risk of depression..”
The rate of depression was 0.86 regards fruit and 0.89 regards vegetables for people with highest versus lowest consumption.
Reference: “Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of depression: A meta-analysis”, Nutrition, 2016 Mar;32(3):296-302; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691768
For a page on this site with many more science reports about how plant-based diets are associated with lower rates of mental illness like depression, anxiety and Alzheimer’s disease, click that link.
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Regards atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) a 2017 report in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition states: “Nitrate-rich vegetables lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function in humans… A total of 1226 Australian women aged 70-85 y without prevalent ASVD and/or diabetes were recruited in 1998 and were studied for 15 y… higher vegetable nitrate intake was associated with a lower risk of ASVD mortality… Higher vegetable nitrate intake (per SD) also was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality... These results support the concept that nitrate-rich vegetables may reduce the risk of age-related ASVD mortality.”
Reference: “Association of dietary nitrate with atherosclerotic vascular disease mortality: a prospective cohort study of older adult women”, American Journal for Clinical Nutrition, 2017 July;106(1):207-216; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28566306
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Regards breast cancer the British Medical Journal reported in 2016 a study of more than 130,000 women. The conclusion: “There is an association between higher fruit intake and lower risk of breast cancer. Food choices during adolescence might be particularly important.”
Specifically: “Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75… for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake… Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in beta carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake… For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Fruit juice intake in adolescence or early adulthood was not associated with risk.”
Reference: “Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer: population based cohort study”, BMJ. 2016 May 11;353:i2343; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170029
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The American Journal for Clinical Nutrition: “Case-control studies overall support a significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables; breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit; and bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables. The overall relative risk estimates from cohort studies suggest a protective effect of both fruit and vegetables for most cancer sites considered, but the risk reduction is significant only for cancers of the lung and bladder and only for fruit…”
Reference: “Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):559S-569S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12936950
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Regards oral cancer the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition: “The consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of oral cancer… The combined adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates showed that each portion of fruit consumed per day significantly reduced the risk of oral cancer by 49%… For vegetable consumption, the meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the overall risk of oral cancer of 50%…”
Reference: “Association between fruit and vegetable consumption and oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):1126-34; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16685056
See also “Each portion of fruit or vegetable consumed halves the risk of oral cancer“, Evidence Based Dentistry, 2007;8(1):19-20; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17380179
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This site contains pages with hundreds of science reports on: the higher rates of disease & death associated with eating red meat, dairy, chicken/poultry, eggs, fish/seafood; & of the improved health & longer lifespans associated with eating healthy plant-based diets featuring fruits & vegetables, nuts & soy; as well as on common nutritional deficiencies; of why so many doctors fail at nutrition; of how big business influences food politics; the evolution of human diets; & on the negative impact of animal agriculture on climate change, deforestation, fishless oceans, biodiversity loss, antibiotic-resistant superbugs; & more.
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Lung Cancer journal reports: “Consumption of red meat, was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer… while yellow-green vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer…”
Specifically: “When comparing the fifth (highest) to the first (lowest) quintile of consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, we obtained odds ratios of 2.0 (1.3-3.1), 3.0 (1.9-4.7), and 2.0 (1.3-3.0) respectively… while an odds ratio of 3.3 (1.7-7.6) was obtained for red meat. The odds ratios for red meat consumption were similar among adenocarcinoma cases, OR=3.0 (1.1-7.9) and non-adenocarcinoma cases, OR=3.2 (1.3-8.3) and among life-time nonsmokers and ex-smokers OR=2.8 (1.4-5.4), and current smokers, OR=4.9 (1.1-22.3). Yellow-green vegetables were protective with an odds ratio of 0.4.”
Reference: “Lung cancer risk and red meat consumption among Iowa women”, Lung Cancer, 2001 Oct;34(1):37-46; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11557111
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Regards gastric cancer, the European Journal of Cancer: “Evidence from this study indicates that consumption of total fruit and white vegetables, but not total vegetables, was inversely associated with [meaning a lower rate of] gastric cancer risk. Both fruit and white vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C, which showed significant protective effect against gastric cancer by our analysis too. Furthermore, we found concordant positive associations between high-salt foods and gastric cancer risk. In addition, a strong effect of alcohol consumption, particularly beer and liquor but not wine, on gastric cancer risk was observed compared with nondrinkers. Dose-response analysis indicated that risk of gastric cancer was increased by 12% per 5 g/day increment of dietary salt intake or 5% per 10 g/day increment of alcohol consumption, and that a 100 g/day increment of fruit consumption was inversely associated with 5% reduction of risk.”
Reference: “Landscape of dietary factors associated with risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, European Journal of Cancer, 2015 Dec;51(18):2820-32; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589974
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Dr Greger clip “Are Avocados Healthy?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5YZlluVXn0
Excerpts: “Avocado consumption can improve artery function, but what effect might guacamole have on cancer risk?… I was so excited to see this study: “the first” to actually look for a link between “avocado consumption [actual human beings eating avocados] and prostate cancer.”… Men who ate the most avocado, more than about a third of an avocado a day, “reduced [their] risk of prostate cancer.” In fact, less than half the odds…”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/are-avocados-healthy/
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Dr Greger clip “Are Avocados Good for Your Cholesterol?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aW1Vilw0p0k
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/are-avocados-good-for-your-cholesterol/
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Dr Greger clip “Cranberries vs. Cancer” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2LwYhEdcpc
Summary: “In addition to suppressing liver cancer growth in vitro, cranberries have also been found to have similar effects against human breast, colon, brain tumor, oral, and ovarian cancer cells. Here’s the latest, looking at prostate cancer cell growth…
The problem is that raw cranberries are so tart that folks may opt for the dried… Raw cranberries don’t affect your blood sugar, but sweetened dried cranberries do—even the low-sugar varieties.
What about cranberry juice, or shall I say quote-unquote juice? Cranberry cocktail is only about a quarter cranberry juice. The ruby red phytonutrients in cranberries and pure cranberry juice are powerful antioxidants, increasing the antioxidant capacity of our bloodstream within hours of consumption. But, the high fructose corn syrup acts as a pro-oxidant—even if you add vitamin C to it, as they did here— cancelling out some of the cranberry benefit.
So, how do you get the upsides without the down? Check out my pink juice video, where I offer a recipe for making no-sugar-added, whole-fruit cranberry cocktail.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/cranberries-versus-cancer/
“Pink Juice with Green Foam” is a short clip by Dr Greger at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9sJguOZkZzU
“Recipe for DIY (do-it-yourself) whole food cranberry cocktail with 25 times fewer calories, and at least 8 times the phytonutrient content…
make your own: 2 cups of water, a handful of frozen cranberries, 8 teaspoons of erythritol, and a hardcore blender. When you do that, you don’t end up with 100% juice; you end up with 200% juice…
it’s better to blend the whole thing up. I call it my pink juice, but it’s not really juice at all; it’s whole fruit. Nothing taken away or filtered out…
When I make it with dark red frozen cherries with the juice of a whole lemon thrown in, I call it my red juice.
The only thing healthier than berries? Dark green leafies. So for extra credit add some fresh mint leaves. Gives it this weird-looking green foam on top, but then you’re chugging down greens and berries—the two healthiest things on the planet.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/pink-juice-with-green-foam/
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Further related clips on youtube by Dr Michael Greger MD include:
The Healthiest Fruits
The Healthiest Apple
The Healthiest Vegetables
Better than Goji Berries
Green Smoothies: What Does the Science Say?
Anti-inflammatory Life is a Bowl of Cherries
Anti-Cancer Potential of Sweet Potato Proteins
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More to Come!
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This set of articles were compiled for
Pages on this Site:
Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.
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Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.
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Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.
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Excerpts & links to articles in news media science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.
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This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.
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This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.
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This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.
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Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.
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Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.
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A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”
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For Archives of Related Memes see:
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