Fruits & Vegetables Lower Risks of Cancer, Cardio-Heart Diseases & Overall Mortality?

Page of Quotes & Links to Science Journal Studies on the Great Health Benefits of Eating Fruits & Vegetables. These include lower risks for cancers (breast, lung, liver, gastrointestinal, colorectal, stomach), hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, weight gain, type 2 diabetes mellitus, eye diseases, dementia, osteoporosis, asthma, pulmonary lung disease & rheumatoid arthritis.

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Regards fruit & vegetables a study of 833,234 people was published in the British Medical Journal in 2014. It reported that people with the higher consumption of fruit & vegetables have the lower death (mortality) rates. Their conclusion: “This meta-analysis provides further evidence that a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality.”
Reference: “Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, BMJ 2014; 349; at http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4490

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Dr Greger clip titled “What are the Healthiest Foods? Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which foods best supply shortfall nutrients while avoiding disease-promoting components?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnqVN56EjrM
Summary: “So, the foods to emphasize in one’s diet are unprocessed, unrefined, plant-derived foods, which in general lack the disease-promoting components, and, as the Dietary Guidelines Committee put it, these foods contain not only the essential vitamins and minerals, but also hundreds of naturally-occurring phytonutrients that may protect against cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and other chronic health conditions…
So, that’s why people eating more plant-based tend to end up eating a more nutrient-dense dietary pattern, closer to the current federal dietary recommendations. And, the more plant-based we get, apparently, the better.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/what-are-the-healthiest-foods/

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The findings of a study on 135,335 individuals in 18 nations as reported during 2017 in The Lancet medical journal: “Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with [meaning lower rates, a lower risk of] major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality… fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with [meaning lower risk of] non-cardiovascular death and total mortality… For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality…”
Reference: “Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study”, The Lancet, 2017; at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32253-5/fulltext

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Dr Greger MD clip “Number 1 Anticancer Vegetable” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tAAehC4BYs
Excerpt: “the two best families of vegetables for cancer prevention are the cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, kale, and cabbage. And the alium family vegetables like garlic, onions and leeks.” Spinach and radicchio also rate highly.

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A 2012 study in the European Journal of Nutrition, that is described as “a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature” states as some of their findings: “For hypertension, CHD [coronary heart disease], and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated [meaning lower rates of cancer] with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus…
There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], and RA [rheumatoid arthritis] indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases…”
Reference: “Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases”, Eur J Nutr. 2012 Sep; 51(6): 637–663; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419346/

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A short clip by Dr Greger MD titled “Which Fruit Fights Cancer Better?” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9dWhGlkvGU
Excerpts: “The ability of eleven common fruits to suppress cancer cell growth in vitro was compared… at high peach concentrations, cancer cell proliferation drops about 10%. But, bananas and grapefruits work about four times better, dropping cancer growth rates by about 40%. Red grapes, strawberries, and apples do even better—cutting cancer cell growth up to half, at only half the dose.
But, these two fruits are the winners, causing a dramatic drop in cancer proliferation at just tiny doses: lemons and cranberries. So, if you look at the effective dose required to suppress liver cancer cell proliferation, apples are more powerful than bananas, but cranberries win the day. And, there was no effective dose listed for orange, pear, or pineapple, since they didn’t appear to affect this cancer cell growth at all.”
Text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/which-fruit-fights-cancer-better/

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A 2014 report is titled “Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk.” It is a study of more than 500,000 people from 10 European countries. The findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and include: “Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancerThe purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far… The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated [meaning lower rates] with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated [was lower in occurrence] with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated [occurred less] with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated [lower rates] with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk [meaning that eating plant fiber is associated with a slightly lower risk of breast cancer]…”
Reference: “Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014 Jul;100 Suppl 1:394S-8S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24920034

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Findings of a report in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2006: “We have examined the current scientific evidence on the relationship between nutrition and the most frequent tumours in the Spanish population: lung, colorectal, prostate, breast and stomach. Consumption of fruit is negatively associated with [meaning lower rates of] cancer of the lung and stomach, possibly with colorectal cancer, but probably not with prostate cancer and breast cancer. Consumption of vegetables probably reduces the risk of colorectal and stomach cancer, but probably is not associated with cancer of the lung, prostate and breast. Consumption of red and processed meat is positively associated with [higher rates of] colorectal cancer and probably with stomach cancer. Animal fat is possibly associated with colorectal cancer and probably with prostate and breast cancer. High alcohol intake increases the risk of colorectal and breast cancer… Obesity is a recognised risk factor of colorectal cancer and breast cancer in postmenopausal women, while foods with a high glycaemic index and glycaemic load possibly increase the risk of colorectal and prostate cancer. The relevance of nutrition on the cancer process is evident…”
Reference: “Nutrition and cancer: the current epidemiological evidence”, Br J Nutr., 2006 Aug;96 Suppl 1:S42-5; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923250

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Dr Michael Greger MD clip “Vegetables rate by nitrate” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJffz_CRISI from the text transcript “a pair of twin Harvard studies found the more fruits and vegetables you eat, the lower your risk of heart disease… If nitrates can boost athletic performance and protect against heart disease, which vegetables have the most… The most powerful protector—green leafy vegetables… The top ten list. Swiss chard has more; next comes oak leaf lettuce; then beet greens; basil; spring greens, like mesclun mix; butter leaf lettuce; cilantro; rhubarb; and arugula (also known as rocket lettuce).
Now, beet juice would actually be here, but we always want to choose whole foods to maximize the nutrition. As you can see, there was actually one stem vegetable, and it came in #2, even—rhubarb! But eight out of the top ten are green leafies, with the winner by a large margin being arugula! 18 times more nitrate than kale! I may have a new favorite vegetable…” at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/vegetables-rate-by-nitrate/

For more articles and clips like that one see this page of links regards nitrates in food.

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Regards atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) a 2017 report in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition states: “Nitrate-rich vegetables lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function in humans… A total of 1226 Australian women aged 70-85 y without prevalent ASVD and/or diabetes were recruited in 1998 and were studied for 15 y… higher vegetable nitrate intake was associated with a lower risk of ASVD mortality… Higher vegetable nitrate intake (per SD) also was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality... These results support the concept that nitrate-rich vegetables may reduce the risk of age-related ASVD mortality.”
Reference: “Association of dietary nitrate with atherosclerotic vascular disease mortality: a prospective cohort study of older adult women”, American Journal for Clinical Nutrition, 2017 July;106(1):207-216; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28566306

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Regards breast cancer the British Medical Journal reported in 2016 a study of more than 130,000 women. The conclusion: “There is an association between higher fruit intake and lower risk of breast cancer. Food choices during adolescence might be particularly important.”
Specifically: “Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75… for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake… Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in beta carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake… For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Fruit juice intake in adolescence or early adulthood was not associated with risk.”
Reference: “Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer: population based cohort study”, BMJ. 2016 May 11;353:i2343; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170029

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The American Journal for Clinical Nutrition: “Case-control studies overall support a significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables; breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit; and bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables. The overall relative risk estimates from cohort studies suggest a protective effect of both fruit and vegetables for most cancer sites considered, but the risk reduction is significant only for cancers of the lung and bladder and only for fruit…”
Reference: “Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):559S-569S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12936950

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Regards oral cancer the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition:The consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of oral cancer… The combined adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates showed that each portion of fruit consumed per day significantly reduced the risk of oral cancer by 49%… For vegetable consumption, the meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the overall risk of oral cancer of 50%…”
Reference: “Association between fruit and vegetable consumption and oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):1126-34; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16685056

See also “Each portion of fruit or vegetable consumed halves the risk of oral cancer“, Evidence Based Dentistry, 2007;8(1):19-20; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17380179

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Lung Cancer journal reports: “Consumption of red meat, was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer… while yellow-green vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer…”
Specifically: “When comparing the fifth (highest) to the first (lowest) quintile of consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, we obtained odds ratios of 2.0 (1.3-3.1), 3.0 (1.9-4.7), and 2.0 (1.3-3.0) respectively… while an odds ratio of 3.3 (1.7-7.6) was obtained for red meat. The odds ratios for red meat consumption were similar among adenocarcinoma cases, OR=3.0 (1.1-7.9) and non-adenocarcinoma cases, OR=3.2 (1.3-8.3) and among life-time nonsmokers and ex-smokers OR=2.8 (1.4-5.4), and current smokers, OR=4.9 (1.1-22.3). Yellow-green vegetables were protective with an odds ratio of 0.4.”
Reference: “Lung cancer risk and red meat consumption among Iowa women”, Lung Cancer, 2001 Oct;34(1):37-46; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11557111

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Regards gastric cancer, the European Journal of Cancer: “Evidence from this study indicates that consumption of total fruit and white vegetables, but not total vegetables, was inversely associated with [meaning a lower rate of] gastric cancer risk. Both fruit and white vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C, which showed significant protective effect against gastric cancer by our analysis too. Furthermore, we found concordant positive associations between high-salt foods and gastric cancer risk. In addition, a strong effect of alcohol consumption, particularly beer and liquor but not wine, on gastric cancer risk was observed compared with nondrinkers. Dose-response analysis indicated that risk of gastric cancer was increased by 12% per 5 g/day increment of dietary salt intake or 5% per 10 g/day increment of alcohol consumption, and that a 100 g/day increment of fruit consumption was inversely associated with 5% reduction of risk.”
Reference: “Landscape of dietary factors associated with risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, European Journal of Cancer, 2015 Dec;51(18):2820-32; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589974

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Dr Greger clip “Cranberries vs. Cancer” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2LwYhEdcpc
Summary: “In addition to suppressing liver cancer growth in vitro, cranberries have also been found to have similar effects against human breast, colon, brain tumor, oral, and ovarian cancer cells. Here’s the latest, looking at prostate cancer cell growth…
The problem is that raw cranberries are so tart that folks may opt for the dried… Raw cranberries don’t affect your blood sugar, but sweetened dried cranberries do—even the low-sugar varieties.
What about cranberry juice, or shall I say quote-unquote juice? Cranberry cocktail is only about a quarter cranberry juice. The ruby red phytonutrients in cranberries and pure cranberry juice are powerful antioxidants, increasing the antioxidant capacity of our bloodstream within hours of consumption. But, the high fructose corn syrup acts as a pro-oxidant—even if you add vitamin C to it, as they did here— cancelling out some of the cranberry benefit.
So, how do you get the upsides without the down? Check out my pink juice video, where I offer a recipe for making no-sugar-added, whole-fruit cranberry cocktail.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/cranberries-versus-cancer/

Pink Juice with Green Foam” is a short clip by Dr Greger at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9sJguOZkZzU
Recipe for DIY (do-it-yourself) whole food cranberry cocktail with 25 times fewer calories, and at least 8 times the phytonutrient content
make your own: 2 cups of water, a handful of frozen cranberries, 8 teaspoons of erythritol, and a hardcore blender. When you do that, you don’t end up with 100% juice; you end up with 200% juice…
it’s better to blend the whole thing up. I call it my pink juice, but it’s not really juice at all; it’s whole fruit. Nothing taken away or filtered out…
When I make it with dark red frozen cherries with the juice of a whole lemon thrown in, I call it my red juice.
The only thing healthier than berries? Dark green leafies. So for extra credit add some fresh mint leaves. Gives it this weird-looking green foam on top, but then you’re chugging down greens and berries—the two healthiest things on the planet.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/pink-juice-with-green-foam/

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More to Come!

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This set of articles were compiled for

www.EatingOurFuture.com

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