Page of Quotes & Links to Science Journal Reports on the Great Health Benefits of Plant-based Diets – Lower Risk for Cancers, Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Heart Diseases, Osteoporosis & Obesity plus Lower Blood Pressure, Hypertension & Blood Cholesterol Levels; with Overall Longer Lifespans and Healthspans.
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From the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics (2016): “It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage. Vegetarians and vegans are at reduced risk of certain health conditions, including ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain types of cancer, and obesity. Low intake of saturated fat and high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, soy products, nuts, and seeds (all rich in fiber and phytochemicals) are characteristics of vegetarian and vegan diets that produce lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and better serum glucose control. These factors contribute to reduction of chronic disease…”
Reference: “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets”, J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Dec;116(12):1970-1980; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27886704
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The Longest Living People in the World? Californian Adventist Vegetarians Live Around 10 Years Longer than the Rest of the Population.
A journal of the American Medical Association reported in 2001 that “Adventist vegetarian men and women have expected ages at death of 83.3 and 85.7 years, respectively. These are 9.5 and 6.1 years, respectively, greater than those of the 1985 California population… To our knowledge, the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population…”
The “analysis of 34,192 California Seventh-Day Adventists” was reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
The report further states: “High physical activity, frequent consumption of nuts, vegetarian status, and medium body mass index each result in an approximate 1.5- to 2.5-years gain in life expectancy compared with the corresponding high-risk values. The sum of these independent effects (9.7 years in men and 10.4 years in women)…
These results strongly suggest that behavioral choices influence the expected age at death by several years, even as much as a decade…
The extra years of life predicted in these analyses are… quite similar to comparisons between Adventists and others in Norway and the Netherlands… and account for a 10-year difference in life expectancy...
Substantial gains in life expectancy would only be worthwhile if they were also accompanied by a longer period of good-quality life… it was previously shown that the vegetarian Adventists took less medication and had fewer overnight hospital stays, surgical procedures, and x-ray examinations during the previous year. Vegetarians also had a reduced prevalence of several chronic diseases that may degrade the quality of life… persons who choose lower-risk health habits postpone disability…
In conclusion, California Adventists live longer than other Californians, and indeed longer than most, if not all, other formally described populations.”
Reference: “Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice?”, Archives of Internal Medicine, 2001 Jul 9;161(13):1645-52; the abstract is at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11434797 and full report is at https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/648593
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From a 2016 study published in the journal of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition: “This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer… Eighty-six cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies were included… The overall analysis among cross-sectional studies reported significant reduced levels of body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and glucose levels in vegetarians and vegans versus omnivores… Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies…”
Reference: “Vegetarian, vegan diets & multiple health outcomes: a systematic review…”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2016;
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Vegans had the lowest occurrence of breast cancer from “a prospective cohort of 96,001 subjects” as reported in 2016 in The British Journal of Nutrition. An excerpt: “As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97…). However, vegans showed consistently lower… point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78…). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible…”
Reference: “Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population”, Br J Nutr., 2016 May 28;115(10):1790-7; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26987270
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A 2014 study in the science journal called Nutrients is titled “Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets…” Some excerpts:
“Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality…”
They state they “summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study [22,940 participants], Adventist Health Study [34,198 participants], and Adventist Health Study-2 [96,000 participants]…”
Findings include: “In all three cohorts, vegetarians experienced a 10% to 20% decreased in all-cause mortality…
Vegetarians experienced a modest, 8% risk reduction for overall-cancer. For cancer-specific sites, vegetarians had approximately half the risk of developing colon cancer. Also, vegetarians had 23% risk reduction for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Vegetarians experienced a 35% risk reduction for prostate cancer compared to non-vegetarians. Similarly, vegetarians tended to have lower risk for cancer of the respiratory tract and overall-cancer…
For BMI [Body Mass Index], vegetarians were approximately 2–4 points lower than non-vegetarians… Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans had respectively, 3 and 5 points lower BMI than non-vegetarians…
vegetarians had 55% lower odds of developing hypertension…
For hypertension, lacto-ovo-vegetarians experienced 55% lower risks; whereas, vegans had 75% risks reduction when compared to non-vegetarians…
The odds of developing type-2 diabetes was 25% to 49% lower for vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians in different cohorts…
Similarly, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan were associated with lower risks of type-2 diabetes. The risks reduction of diabetes for lacto-ovo-vegetarians varied between 38% and 61%; and 47% to 78% for vegans…
The odds of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) for vegetarians were about half compared to non-vegetarians…”
Reference: “Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts”, Nutrients. 2014 Jun; 6(6): 2131–2147. Published online 2014 May 27. doi: 10.3390/nu6062131; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073139/
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From a 2013 study reported in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition about ischemic heart disease (IHD): “The objective was to examine the association of a vegetarian diet with risk of incident (nonfatal and fatal) IHD… A total of 44,561 men and women living in England and Scotland… Conclusion: Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower IHD risk… Compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarians had a lower mean BMI [Body Mass Index]… non-HDL-cholesterol concentration… and systolic blood pressure… Vegetarians had a 32% lower risk of IHD than did nonvegetarians… and did not differ materially by sex, age, BMI, smoking, or the presence of IHD risk factors…”
Reference: “Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, First published January 30, 2013, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044073; http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2013/01/30/ajcn.112.044073.abstract
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A study of 61,647 British men and women over 14.9 years found that compared with meat eaters the vegetarians had lower relative risks (RRs) for these cancers: 0.37 for stomach cancer; 0.64 for cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue; 0.23 for multiple myeloma – a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell; and 0.88 for all sites combined. Their conclusion: “In this British population, the risk of some cancers is lower in… vegetarians than in meat eaters.”
Reference: “Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014 Jul;100 Suppl 1:378S-85S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898235
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Dr Greger clip “Vegetarians Versus Healthy Omnivores” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApYjDhWo8mM
Summary: “Even after controlling for a variety of dietary and nondietary factors… they still found the incidence of all cancers combined was lower among vegetarians.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/vegetarians-versus-healthy-omnivores/
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A study published in JAMA Internal Medicine in 2013 concludes: “Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males…”
The study was based on “96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007”.
The specific results include: “The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88… The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85… in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91… in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81… and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92… compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality…”
Reference: “Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2”,
JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 8;173(13):1230-8; at
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23836264 and http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1710093
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A 2015 report in the Public Health Nutrition science journal states that “Compared with non-vegetarians, the vegetarian/vegans had” the following “odds ratios” of:
– 0.56 for hypertension
– 0.48 for diabetes
– 0.42 for high blood total cholesterol
– 0.54 for high blood LDL-cholesterol
– 0.43 for obesity
– 0.54 for abdominal obesity…
“when adjusted for age, gender, education, physical activity and sub-study… Further adjustment for BMI (body mass index) suggested that BMI acts as an intermediary variable between diet and both hypertension and diabetes.”
The authors conclude: “As with non-blacks, these results suggest that there are sizeable advantages to a vegetarian diet in black individuals also…”
Reference: “Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2”, Public Health Nutrition, 2015 Feb;18(3):537-45; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24636393
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A 2012 study published in the science journal Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism reports: “RESULTS: Seven studies with a total of 124,706 participants were included in this analysis. All-cause mortality in vegetarians was 9% lower than in nonvegetarians… The mortality from ischemic heart disease was significantly lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians… We observed a 16% lower mortality from circulatory diseases… and a 12% lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease… in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians… CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29%) and overall cancer incidence (18%) than nonvegetarians.”
Reference: “Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review”, Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233-40. doi: 10.1159/000337301. Epub 2012 Jun 1; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677895
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A study of 11,000 British men and women concluded “Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, have a lower prevalence of hypertension and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures than meat eaters, largely because of differences in body mass index.”
Reference: “Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford”, Public Health Nutrition, 2002 Oct;5(5):645-54; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12372158
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A 2012 article in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine states: “There is now a significant amount of research that demonstrates the health benefits of vegetarian and plant-based diets, which have been associated with a reduced risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and some types of cancer as well as increased longevity.
Vegetarian diets are typically lower in fat, particularly saturated fat, and higher in dietary fiber. They are also likely to include more whole grains, legumes, nuts, and soy protein, and together with the absence of red meat, this type of eating plan may provide many benefits for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic health problems, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Although a well-planned vegetarian or vegan diet can meet all the nutritional needs of an individual, it may be necessary to pay particular attention to some nutrients to ensure an adequate intake, particularly if the person is on a vegan diet. This article will review the evidence for the health benefits of a vegetarian diet and also discuss strategies for meeting the nutritional needs of those following a vegetarian or plant-based eating pattern.”
Reference: “Health Implications of a Vegetarian Diet”, American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine May/June 2012 vol. 6 no. 3 250-267
http://ajl.sagepub.com/content/6/3/250.abstract Authors: Kate Marsh, BSc, MNutrDiet, PhD; Carol Zeuschner, BSc, MSc; Angela Saunders, BS, MA; Northside Nutrition and Dietetics, Chatswood, Australia.
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2017 article “British Dietetic Association confirms well-planned vegan diets can support healthy living in people of all ages… a balanced vegan diet can be enjoyed by children and adults, including during pregnancy and breastfeeding…” at https://www.bda.uk.com/news/view?id=179
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Dietitians of Canada 2014 -“Healthy Eating Guidelines for Vegans:… “A healthy vegan diet has many health benefits including lower rates of obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer… A healthy vegan diet can meet all your nutrient needs at any stage of life including when you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for older adults… A vegan diet includes grains, vegetables, fruit, legumes (dried beans, peas and lentils), seeds and nuts. It excludes meat, fish, poultry, dairy and eggs and products containing these foods…” at https://www.dietitians.ca/Your-Health/Nutrition-A-Z/Vegetarian-Diets/Eating-Guidelines-for-Vegans.aspx
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From a 2003 article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases…
scores of nutritional epidemiologic studies have documented important and quantifiable benefits of vegetarian and other plant-based diets… Vegetarians living in affluent countries enjoy remarkably good health, exemplified by low rates of obesity, coronary diseases, diabetes, and many cancers, and increased longevity… meat intake has been related to increased risk for a variety of chronic diseases such as ischemic heart disease and some cancers… All the protective effects were observed for foods of plant origin, while all the hazardous effects were correlated with meat intake…”
Reference: “The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?”, Joan Sabaté, Am J Clin Nutr, September 2003 vol.78 no.3 502S-507S; http://www.ajcn.org/content/78/3/502S.full
Another 2003 article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition states: “long-term (≥ 2 decades) adherence to a vegetarian diet can further produce a significant 3.6-year increase in life expectancy…”
Reference: “Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?”, Pramil N Singh, Joan Sabaté, and Gary E Fraser, Am J Clin Nutr, September 2003 vol.78 no.3 526S-532S; http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/526S.long
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A 2012 article titled “Why Do Vegetarians Live Longer?” – some excerpts “Nearly a decade of extra life – that’s what you get when you move away from eating animal foods and toward a plant-based diet. This is really exciting science for anyone seeking healthy longevity (and who isn’t?)!
According to a recent report on the largest study of vegetarians and vegans to date, those eating plant-based diets appear to have a significantly longer life expectancy. Vegetarians live on average almost eight years longer than the general population, which is similar to the gap between smokers and nonsmokers. This is not surprising, given the reasons most of us are dying. In an online video, “Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death,” Michael Greger, M.D. explores the role a healthy diet can play in preventing, treating, and even reversing the top 15 killers in the United States. Let’s take a closer look at what the good doctor has pulled together…”
The full article is at https://www.huffingtonpost.com/kathy-freston/plant-based-diet_b_1981838.html
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Medical Journal of Australia: “A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds… There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease…”
Reference: “Protein and vegetarian diets”, Medical Journal of Australia, 2013 Aug 19;199(4 Suppl):S7-S10; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369930
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A 2013 article published in the Permanente Journal is titled “Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets” The Abstract states: “The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity.”
Reference: “Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets”, Perm J. 2013 Spring; 17(2): 61–66. doi: 10.7812/TPP/12-085; PMCID: PMC3662288;
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A 2016 study published in a journal of the American Medical Association reported that “Replacing animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality.”
That means eating plant protein is associated with a lower risk of dying and eating animal protein is associated with a higher risk of dying.
Further details of the study: “Of the 131 342 participants… After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake… was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality… Plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality… and [lower] cardiovascular mortality…”
Reference: “Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality”, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2016 Oct 1;176(10):1453-1463. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27479196
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A study published during 2013 in the journal Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases concluded: “Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence.”
The study’s “participants were 15,200 men and 26,187 women”.
Results include: “Cases of diabetes developed in 0.54% of vegans, 1.08% of lacto ovo vegetarians, 1.29% of pesco vegetarians, 0.92% of semi-vegetarians and 2.12% of non-vegetarians. Blacks had an increased risk compared to non-Blacks…
In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking and BMI, vegans [odds ratio 0.381]… lacto ovo vegetarians [odds ratio 0.618]… and semi-vegetarians [odds ratio 0.486]… had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians…”
Reference: “Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2”, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Apr;23(4):292-9. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.07.004. Epub 2011 Oct 7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983060
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See this page for more articles regards the association of Meat Consumption with Higher rates & risks of Type 2 Diabetes and lowered/decreased risks from Plant-based (Vegan, Vegetarian) Diets.
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A 2014 study published in the Public Library of Science’s PLoS One journal states: “We evaluated the association between diet and diabetes/impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among 4384 Taiwanese Buddhist volunteers and identified diabetes/IFG cases from a comprehensive review of medical history and fasting plasma glucose… The crude prevalence of diabetes in vegetarians versus omnivores is 0.6% versus 2.3% in pre-menopausal women, 2.8% versus 10% in menopausal women, and 4.3% versus 8.1% in men… CONCLUSION: We found a strong protective association between Taiwanese vegetarian diet and diabetes/IFG, after controlling for various potential confounders and risk factors.”
Reference: “Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores: dietary composition, prevalence of diabetes and IFG”, PLoS One. 2014 Feb 11;9(2):e88547. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088547. eCollection 2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523914 … About The Public Library of Science (PLOS) “With rigorous reporting and peer review, PLOS journals are highly respected and influential in all areas of science” https://www.plos.org/faq
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A 2012 meta-analysis of 124,706 people concluded: “Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29%) and overall cancer incidence (18%) than nonvegetarians…” They also “observed a 16% lower mortality from circulatory diseases… and a 12% lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease… in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians…”
Reference: “Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review”, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2012; 60:233–240; at https://content.karger.com/Article/FullText/337301
A related media report is titled “A Vegan Diet (Hugely) Helpful Against Cancer.” Some excerpts: “A 2012 analysis of all the best studies done to date concluded vegetarians have significantly lower cancer rates. For example, the largest forward-looking study on diet and cancer ever performed concluded that “the incidence of all cancers combined is lower among vegetarians.” …
A new study just out of Loma Linda University funded by the National Cancer Institute reported that vegans have lower rates of cancer than both meat-eaters and vegetarians. Vegan women, for example, had 34 percent lower rates of female-specific cancers such as breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer. And this was compared to a group of healthy omnivores who ate substantially less meat than the general population (two servings a week or more), as well as after controlling for non-dietary factors such as smoking, alcohol, and a family history of cancer…”
Article is at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kathy-freston/vegan-diet-cancer_b_2250052.html
From the study published in 2013 by Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention – a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research – some excerpts: “Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries… We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants…
vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence [hazard ratio 0.84]… in both genders combined and for female-specific cancers [hazard ratio 0.66]…
CONCLUSION: Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer…
Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer than other dietary patterns…”
Reference: “Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population”,
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Feb;22(2):286-94; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23169929
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From a 2016 report titled “The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans” – excerpt: “Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD [ischemic heart disease] compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background… For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians… Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores…”
Reference: “The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans”, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2016 Aug;75(3):287-93; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707634https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707634
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A 1999 study published in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition reports: “Data for 76172 men and women were available. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish… Mortality from ischemic heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians… The lower mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was greater at younger ages and was restricted to those who had followed their current diet for >5 y. Further categorization of diets showed that, in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat eaters, 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in lactoovovegetarians, and 26% lower in vegans…”
Reference: “Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies”, Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-524S; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479225
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A 2016 report of a study on prostate cancer covering 26,346 men concluded: “Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer.” Specifically they found “Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65…)” meaning a hazard ratio of just 65%. Other notes include “According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ~27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men…”
Reference: “Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 2016 vol. 103 no. 1 153-160; at http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/1/153
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A study published in Public Health Nutrition in 1998 concluded “Vegetarians have a lower risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than non-vegetarians“. The study was based on “76,172 men and women aged 16-89 years at recruitment. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27,808). Non-vegetarians were from a similar background to the vegetarians within each study.” The results state: “In comparison with non-vegetarians, vegetarians had a 24% reduction in mortality from ischaemic heart disease…”
Reference: “Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies”, Public Health Nutr. 1998 Mar;1(1):33-41; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10555529
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From a 1999 study printed in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Results associating diet with chronic disease in a cohort of 34192 California Seventh-day Adventists are summarized…
Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between beef consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men…
significant protective associations between nut consumption and fatal and nonfatal IHD in both sexes…
and reduced risk of IHD in subjects preferring whole-grain to white bread.
The lifetime risk of IHD was reduced by ≈31% in those who consumed nuts frequently and by 37% in male vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians.
Cancers of the colon and prostate were significantly more likely in nonvegetarians [ie. cancer is more frequent in the meat eaters]…
and frequent beef consumers also had higher risk of bladder cancer.
Intake of legumes was negatively associated with risk of colon cancer in nonvegetarians and risk of pancreatic cancer.
Higher consumption of all fruit or dried fruit was associated with lower risks of lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers.
Cross-sectional data suggest vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists have lower risks of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and arthritis than nonvegetarians.
Thus, among Seventh-day Adventists, vegetarians are healthier than nonvegetarians…”
Reference: “Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 1999 vol. 70 no. 3 532s-538s; at http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/70/3/532s
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Regards weight issues a Dr Greger clip titled “Thousands of Vegans Studied” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ileI3Gq7LkU
Summary: Study found that in the USA “only the vegans are on average a healthy weight…” even though “the vegans exercised less” they were on average 40 pounds lighter.
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/vegetarians-versus-healthy-omnivores/
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A 2015 article titled “Vegetarian Diet Protects Against Colorectal Cancer” by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is at
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A 2014 article in The Atlantic titled “Science Compared Every Diet, and the Winner Is Real Food.”
Excerpts: “Researchers asked if one diet could be crowned best in terms of health outcomes. If diet is a set of rigid principles, the answer is a decisive no. In terms of broader guidelines, it’s a decisive yes…
Scientific publisher Annual Reviews asked Katz to compare the medical evidence for and against every mainstream diet…
Katz and Yale colleague Stephanie Meller published their findings in the current  issue of the journal in a paper titled, “Can We Say What Diet Is Best for Health?” In it, they compare the major diets of the day…
A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention…
Among the salient points of proven health benefits the researchers note, nutritionally-replete plant-based diets are supported by a wide array of favorable health outcomes, including fewer cancers and less heart disease. These diets ideally included not just fruits and vegetables, but whole grains, nuts, and seeds…
If you focus on real food, nutrients tend to take care of themselves…
Exaggerated emphasis on a single nutrient or food is inadvisable…
“The evidence that with knowledge already at our disposal, we could eliminate 80 percent of chronic disease is the basis for everything I do,” Katz said. Just as he was finishing his residency in internal medicine in 1993, influential research in the Journal of the American Medical Association (“Actual Causes of Death in the United States”) put diet on a short list of the lifestyle factors blamed for half of deaths in 1990. “Here we are more than 20 years later and we’ve made just about no progress.”…
in a notable blow to some interpretations of the Paleo diet, Katz and Meller wrote, “if Paleolithic eating is loosely interpreted to mean a diet based mostly on meat, no meaningful interpretation of health effects is possible.” They note that the composition of most meat in today’s food supply is not similar to that of mammoth meat, and that most plants available during the Stone Age are today extinct…”
Reference for the study: “Can We Say What Diet Is Best for Health?”, Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 35:83-103; at http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351
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From the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics (2003): “It is the position of the American Dietitic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases…
Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits …
They state that vegetarians: “have lower body mass indices than non-vegetarians [ie. are less likely to be fat and obese compared to meat eaters]… have lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease… lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.”
Source: JADA, 2003, Vol.103 Issue 6, 748-765; http://www.andjrnl.org/article/S0002-8223%2803%2900294-3/fulltext
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More to Come !
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Regards Fruit & Vegetables
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Regards Omega 3 Fatty Acids
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Regards Vitamin B12
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This set of articles were compiled for
Pages on this Site:
Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.
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Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.
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Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.
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Excerpts & links to articles in news media science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.
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This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.
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This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.
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This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.
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Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.
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Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.
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A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”
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For Archives of Related Memes see:
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