Common Nutritional Deficiencies in Developed Nations.

Page Summary: Clips, Quotes & Links to 40+ Science News Reports on the High Proportion of Nutritionally Deficient People in the General Population; with reports about supplement usage; plus comparisons of omnivore & plant-based diets (vegetarians & vegans).

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The U.S. Environmental Working Group states “More than 40 percent of adults have dietary intakes of vitamin A, C, D and E, calcium and magnesium below the average requirement for their age and gender…” – http://www.ewg.org/research/how-much-is-too-much/appendix-b-vitamin-and-mineral-deficiencies-us#.WZ4D6FFLeUk

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A 2011 Journal of Nutrition report regards the USA population concluded: “Without enrichment and/or fortification and supplementation, many Americans did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake levels set forth in the Dietary Reference Intake.”
Of specific concern was that the percentage of the population who were deficient, with total usual intakes below the EAR [Estimated Average Requirements], were: vitamin A 34%; vitamin C 25%; vitamin D 70%; vitamin E 60%; calcium 38%; magnesium 45%; potassium 97%; vitamin K 65%.
In noting that many people do not achieve adequate nutrition through unfortified food they reported:
“Enrichment and/or fortification largely contributed to intakes of vitamins A, C, and D, thiamin, iron, and folate.
Dietary supplements further reduced the percentage of the population consuming less than the EAR for all nutrients.
The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for most nutrients, whereas 10.3 and 8.4% of the population had intakes greater than the UL for niacin and zinc, respectively...”
Reference: “Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients?” The Journal of Nutrition, 2011 Oct;141(10):1847-54; at
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21865568

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A 2014 report on analysis of 16,444 US residents found that many are deficient even with multivitamin/mineral (MVMM) supplements. They found:
large portions of the population had total usual intakes (food and MVMM supplement use) below the estimated average requirement [EAR] for vitamins A (35%), C (31%), D (74%), and E (67%) as well as calcium (39%) and magnesium (46%).
Only 0%, 8%, and 33% of the population had total usual intakes of potassium, choline, and vitamin K above the adequate intake when food and MVMM use was considered…”
In other words, the figures for people below the EAR, who are deficient: 100% for potassium; 92% for choline; 67% Vitamin K.
Their conclusion: “In large proportions of the population, micronutrient sufficiency is currently not being achieved through food solutions for several essential vitamins and minerals.”
Reference: “Multivitamin/mineral supplement contribution to micronutrient intakes in the United States, 2007-2010”, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2014;33(2):94-102; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24724766

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A 2011 study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association concluded from an analysis of more than 13,000 people that “Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were HIGHER for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians… These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and could be recommended for weight management without compromising diet quality.”
(emphasis added)
Reference: “A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004,” J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jun;111(6):819-27; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616194/

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Nutritional Deficiencies Quotes Facts Data Science Reports Studies Food Vitamin Mineral Protein Fiber Deficiency Risk Vitamins Minerals % Amount Percentage Occurrence Incidence Numbers U.S. USA Population Info Meat Eaters Vegans Diets Memes
[click image to open larger hi-res png file]

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A 2017 study titled “Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland” found that Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe [Iron] deficiency was comparable across all diet groups.”
Reference: European Journal of Nutrition, 2017 Feb;56(1):283-293; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502280

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Regards fiber deficiency, Dr Michael Greger states: “There is a nutrient, though, for which 97% of Americans are deficient… Less than 3% of Americans get even the recommended minimum adequate intake of fiber… This deficit is stunning in that dietary fiber has been [protectively] associated… with the risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease…, obesity, and various cancers as well as… high cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood [sugars]. Therefore, it is not surprising that fiber is [now] listed as a nutrient of concern in the… Dietary Guidelines… By definition, fiber is only found in plants…”
Those excerpts are from the clip titled “Do Vegetarians Get Enough Protein?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2m4p8s7xskQ
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/do-vegetarians-get-enough-protein/

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The Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition reports: “The American Dietetic Association (ADA) has stated that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Seventy diets were computer analyzed from the menu of athletes or sedentary subjects seeking to improve the quality of micronutrient intake from food choices. All of these dietary analyses fell short of the recommended 100% RDA micronutrient level from food alone. Therefore, based on diets analyzed for adequacy or inadequacy of macronutrients and micronutrients, a challenging question is proposed: “Does food selection alone provide 100% of the former RDA or newer RDI micronutrient recommended daily requirement?”…
Reference: “Food Alone May Not Provide Sufficient Micronutrients for Preventing Deficiency”, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2006, 3:51; at
https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-3-1-51

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Regards potassium deficiency, Dr Michael Greger MD: “Less than 2% of Americans achieve even the recommended minimum adequate intake of potassium, due primarily to inadequate plant food intake… Every cell in the body requires the element potassium to function…”
Clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVS2uoL74vQ
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/98-of-american-diets-potassium-deficient/

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A 2010 study found that people have “a high likelihood of becoming micronutrient deficient” – in vitamins and minerals – on these popular diet plans: the Atkins for Life Diet, The South Beach Diet and the DASH diet.
According to the authors the diet plans “failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all 27 micronutrients analyzed”. They “were found to be almost RDI sufficient” in around 11, being less than half, “of the analyzed 27 micronutrients.” And that “Six micronutrients (vitamin B7, vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine and molybdenum) were identified as consistently low or nonexistent in all four diet plans.”
Reference: “Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiency in Popular Diet Plans”, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2010; 7: 24; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2905334/

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Dr Michael Greger clip titled “What are the Healthiest Foods? Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which foods best supply shortfall nutrients while avoiding disease-promoting components?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnqVN56EjrM

Summary: “So, the foods to emphasize in one’s diet are unprocessed, unrefined, plant-derived foods, which in general lack the disease-promoting components, and, as the Dietary Guidelines Committee put it, these foods contain not only the essential vitamins and minerals, but also hundreds of naturally-occurring phytonutrients that may protect against cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and other chronic health conditions…
So, that’s why people eating more plant-based tend to end up eating a more nutrient-dense dietary pattern, closer to the current federal dietary recommendations. And, the more plant-based we get, apparently, the better.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/what-are-the-healthiest-foods/

For this site’s page of science reports on the many health benefits of eating vegetables and fruits click that link.

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A 2013 report in Nutrition Journal compared the diets of vegetarian and omnivorous subjects: “Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake.
Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects).
The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4)…
Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.”
Reference: “Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects”, Nutrition Journal, 2013 Jun 13;12:82; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23758767

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A short clip by medical doctor Michael Greger titled “Omnivore vs. Vegan Nutrient Deficiencies” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVJCHVEatqY
Summary: “Average vegan diets tend to be deficient in three nutrients, whereas average omnivores tend, unfortunately, to be deficient in seven
it’s not enough to just understand intellectually that plant-based sources of nutrients are superior. We need to put it into practice. The calcium in kale and broccoli is absorbed nearly twice as well as the calcium in milk. But we cut our absorption rate down to zero if we let our greens rot in the fridge, or we never buy them in the first place.”
Text: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/omnivore-vs-vegan-nutrient-deficiencies-2/

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A report titled “Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet” concludes: “The present data indicate that the “living food diet” provides significantly more dietary antioxidants than does the cooked, omnivorous diet, and that the long-term adherents to this diet have a better antioxidant status than do omnivorous control subjects.”
More specifically: “The calculated dietary antioxidant intakes by the vegans, expressed as percentages of the US recommended dietary allowances, were as follows: 305% of vitamin C, 247% of vitamin A, 313% of vitamin E, 92% of zinc, 120% of copper, and 49% of selenium. Compared with the omnivores, the vegans had significantly higher blood concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, as well as higher erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. These differences were also seen in pairs who were using no antioxidant supplements…”
Reference: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1995 Dec;62(6):1221-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7491884

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A 2014 report in the science journal Nutrients is titled “Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet.” Excerpts from the summary: “Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated as indicators for diet quality… The vegan diet received the highest index values and the omnivorous the lowest for HEI-2010 and MDS.
Typical aspects of a vegan diet (high fruit and vegetable intake, low sodium intake, and low intake of saturated fat) contributed substantially to the total score, independent of the indexing system used. The score for the more prudent diets (vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians) differed as a function of the used indexing system but they were mostly better in terms of nutrient quality than the omnivores.”
Reference: “Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet”, Nutrients, 2014 Mar 24;6(3):1318-32; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24667136

For this site’s page with quotes and links to many science reports on the health benefits of vegan and vegetarian diets click that link.

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A 2017 report in the Nutrients science journal states: “Nearly one-third of the U.S. population is at risk of deficiency in at least one vitamin…”
More specifically: “A significantly higher deficiency risk was seen in women (37%), non-Hispanic blacks (55%), individuals from low income households (40%), or without a high school diploma (42%), and underweight (42%) or obese individuals (39%). A deficiency risk was most common in women 19–50 years (41%), and pregnant or breastfeeding women (47%)…”
The risk for a deficiency among “users of full-spectrum multivitamin-multimineral supplements” was just “14%”.
And “Individuals consuming an adequate diet based on the Estimated Average Requirement had a lower risk of any deficiency (16%) than those with an inadequate diet (57%)…”
Reference: “Risk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United States”, Nutrients, 2017 Jun 24;9(7); at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28672791

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From the Journal of the American Medical Association, 2002: “Most people do not consume an optimal amount of all vitamins by diet alone… it appears prudent for all adults to take vitamin supplements…” – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12069676

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A 2000 report in Nutrition journal states: “Every day, vegetarians consume many carbohydrate-rich plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, cereals, pulses, and nuts. As a consequence, their diet contains more antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene) and copper than that of omnivores. Intake of zinc is generally comparable to that by omnivores. However, the bioavailability of zinc in vegetarian diets is generally lower than that of omnivores. Dietary intake of selenium is variable in both groups and depends on the selenium content of the soil. Measurements of antioxidant body levels in vegetarians show that a vegetarian diet maintains higher antioxidant vitamin status (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene) but variable antioxidant trace element status as compared with an omnivorous diet…”
Reference: “Antioxidant status in vegetarians versus omnivores”, Nutrition, 2000 Feb;16(2):111-9; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696634

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A report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition states: “Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases…”
Reference: “The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 2003 vol.78 no.3 502S-507S; http://www.ajcn.org/content/78/3/502S.full

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A 2013 report in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is titled “Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns.”
They “conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects… Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian.”
The summary of the results: “Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]).”
Reference: “Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns”, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2013 Dec;113(12):1610-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23988511

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Reports on How Many People Use Nutritional Supplements:

A 2014 report in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition states that “51% of Americans consumed MVMM [Multivitamin/mineral] supplements containing ≥ 9 micronutrients.”
Even with that usage large percentages of people were still deficient for several nutrients: 35% for vitamin A; 31% for vitamin C; 74% for vitamin D; 67% for vitamin E; 39% for calcium; 46% for magnesium.
And the figures for those below “total usual intakes” were 100% for potassium; 92% for choline; 67% for vitamin K.
Reference: “Multivitamin/mineral supplement contribution to micronutrient intakes in the United States, 2007-2010”, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2014;33(2):94-102; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24724766

The US Centers for Disease Control reports “Almost half of the adult population (49 percent) used a dietary supplement during 2007 -2010.” Reference: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/factsheets/factsheet_nutrition_data.pdf
The American Journal for Clinical Nutrition reports: “52% of adults reported taking a dietary supplement in the past month, and 35% reported regular use of a multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM) product… data indicate an overall prevalence of dietary supplement usage of 40%…”
Reference: “Multivitamin-multimineral supplements: who uses them?”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):277S-279S; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209209

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Dr Michael Greger MD explores “Should We Take a Multivitamin?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5fgVDT0qw88
Excerpts: “Well, what if we put all the studies together—the big observational studies, along with the experimental trials? And, that’s what we got in December 2013—concluding that multivitamins appear to offer “no consistent evidence” of benefit for heart disease, cancer, or living longer.
Why, though? Aren’t vitamins and minerals good for us? Well, “[o]ne explanation for this result could be that [our bodies] are so complex that the effects of supplementing [a few] components is generally ineffective or actually does harm.” Maybe, we should get our nutrients in the way nature intended…
Americans spend billions on such supplements. “A better investment in health would be eating more fruits and vegetables.” Imagine if we instead spent those billions on healthy food?”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/should-we-take-a-multivitamin/

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Regards the large nutritional role of fortified of foods for US children and teenagers, a 2014 report in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics states: “Without added nutrients, a high percentage of all children/adolescents had inadequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, with the greatest inadequacy among older girls. Fortification reduced the percentage less than the Estimated Average Requirement for many, although not all, micronutrients without resulting in excessive intakes…”
Reference: “Fortified foods are major contributors to nutrient intakes in diets of US children and adolescents”, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, 2014 Jul;114(7):1009-1022.e8; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462266

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Excerpts below from an article titled “Will a Multivitamin Reduce Risk of Deficiency?” by Julia Bird, Senior Associate Scientist, Human Nutrition and Health, DSM:
less than 10% of U.S. adults meet fruit and vegetable recommendations and 45% had a diet considered to be “poor” when compared to dietary guidelines. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins D, A, C, E, and K were low for a “considerable percentage” of U.S. adults, and supplements can help make up the micronutrient gap…
We found that almost one in three people living in the U.S. are at risk of deficiency, and the most common deficiencies are for vitamins B6, B12, C and D.
When looking at age and gender groups, women aged 19-50 years old are at greatest risk (41%), as are people of lower socio-economic status, non-Hispanic Blacks, and underweight or obese adults.
We found that using a dietary supplement reduced risk of deficiency, particularly multivitamins that contain a wide range of different vitamins and minerals. Specifically, 44% of people not taking a dietary supplement were at risk of deficiency, compared to 16% taking a multivitamin, or 40% taking any other dietary supplement.
When we looked at diet, it’s clear that meeting the dietary recommendations helps to reduce risk of deficiency. People who met the EAR [Estimated Average Requirements] for all the vitamins and minerals in our analysis had a risk of deficiency of only 16%, compared to people with the poorest diets, who had a risk of deficiency of 58%.
Also here, dietary supplements could reduce risk of deficiency. Using a multivitamin could reduce risk of deficiency from 70% to 30% in people with the poorest diets, when compared to people not taking a dietary supplement. In people with adequate diets, risk of deficiency was reduced from 28% to 5% when comparing dietary non-users with multivitamin users… Having a good diet helps reduce risk of deficiency, as does taking a multivitamin, and in combination, the risk of deficiency is the lowest.”
Source: https://www.dsm.com/campaigns/talkingnutrition/en_US/talkingnutrition-dsm-com/2017/06/Will_a_Multivitamin_Reduce_Risk_of_Deficiency.html

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Regards Lack of Knowledge About Nutrition:

From a 2012 article titled “Survey Finds Americans Lack Basic Nutrition Information” an excerpt: “A surprising number of Americans lack the most basic nutrition information, according to a new national survey of more than 1,000 adults…
Nutrition-related diseases kill millions of Americans every year, and a major cause of these epidemics is that many consumers do not know enough about the role that foods play in health. About two-thirds of adults and one-third of children and adolescents are overweight. Obesity raises the risk of many leading causes of death, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). More than 25 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women…”
Reference: the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) at
http://www.pcrm.org/health/reports/survey-americans-lack-basic-nutrition-info

For this site’s page of science journal reports about how most doctors receive only several days training in nutrition during their college studies, click that link.

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A 2000 report titled “Nutritional intakes of vegetarian populations in France” concluded “Our results suggest that vegetarians have a better understanding of dietary requirements than does the general population.”
Source: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10822295

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This site contains pages with hundreds of science reports on the higher rates of disease & death associated with eating red meat, dairy, chicken/poultry, eggs, fish/seafood & of the lower rates associated with eating healthy plant-based diets high in fruits & vegetables & nuts.

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Regards Vitamin D Deficiency:

Regards the USA vitamin D deficiency is very common in the general population despite all the meat, dairy, fish & eggs consumed. A 2011 study reports for the USA: “The overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was 41.6%, with the highest rate seen in blacks (82.1%), followed by Hispanics (69.2%).” Reference: Nutrition Research –  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310306
A 2009 study reports “The current analysis describes a much higher prevalence (77% during NHANES 2001-2004) of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population…” 77%!!!  Reference: JAMA Internal Medicine – http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/414878

A 2015 report in the Indian Journal of Community Medicine states: “Vitamin D deficiency, as defined by low levels of serum 25(OH)D, is widespread throughout the world irrespective of age, gender, country of origin, latitude of residence, or dietary practices. High rates of biochemical vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among healthy individuals have been reported in large-scale studies from all parts of the world – the United States,(1) Canada,(2) South America,(3) Europe,(4) Australia,(5) the Middle East,(6) South Asia,(7) and Africa.(8) Severe vitamin D deficiency is common in China, India, South America, and the Middle East. In India, studies from different parts of the country have reported a prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varying from 30% to 100%.(7,9,10)…”
Reference: “Vitamin D Deficiency: Is The Pandemic for Real?”, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 2015 Oct-Dec; 40(4): 215–217; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4581139/

Regards the UK the BBC reports: “Everyone should consider taking vitamin D supplements in autumn and winter, public health advice for the UK recommends…” –
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-36846894
The UK National Health Service (NHS) reports: “The new advice from PHE [Public Health England] is that adults and children over the age of one should consider taking a daily supplement containing 10mcg of vitamin D, particularly during autumn and winter. People who have a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency are being advised to take a supplement all year round…” – https://www.nhs.uk/news/food-and-diet/the-new-guidelines-on-vitamin-d-what-you-need-to-know/

Even in sunny Australia vitamin D deficiency is common. From the Australian Bureau of Statistics: “one in four (23%), or 4 million adults, had a Vitamin D deficiency, which comprised 17% with a mild deficiency, 6% with a moderate deficiency and less than 1% with a severe deficiency. Overall, rates of Vitamin D deficiency were very similar for both men and women… one in twenty Australian adults (5%) were taking Vitamin D supplements in 2011–12. As expected, those who took Vitamin D supplements had lower levels of Vitamin D deficiency than those who did not take supplements (7% compared with 23%)…”
http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4364.0.55.006Chapter2002011-12

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Regards Vitamin B12 Deficiency:

From a U.S. Department of Agriculture article titled “B12 Deficiency May Be More Widespread Than Thought” excerpts: “Nearly two-fifths [40%] of the U.S. population may be flirting with marginal vitamin B12 status… the researchers found NO association between plasma B12 levels and meat, poultry, and fish intake … “It’s not because people aren’t eating enough meat,” Tucker said. “The vitamin isn’t getting absorbed”… Fortified cereals are a different story. She says the vitamin is sprayed on during processing and is “more like what we get in supplements.” (emphasis added)
Reference: “AgResearch Magazine” https://agresearchmag.ars.usda.gov/2000/aug/vita

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Dr Jennifer Rooke MD: “The Framingham Offspring study found that 39 percent of the general population may be in the low normal and deficient B12 blood level range, and it was not just vegetarians or older people.
This study showed no difference in the B12 blood levels of younger and older adults. Most interestingly there was no difference between those who ate meat, poultry, or fish and those who did not eat those foods. The people with the highest B12 blood levels were those who were taking B12 supplements and eating B12 fortified cereals…
IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN MEAT (AS) A SOURCE OF B12 THE MEAT INDUSTRY NOW ADDS IT TO ANIMAL FEED, 90% OF B12 SUPPLEMENTS PRODUCED IN THE WORLD ARE FED TO LIVESTOCK… cattle no longer feed on grass and chickens do not peck in the dirt on factory farms. Even if they did, pesticides often kill B12 producing bacteria and insects in soil. Heavy antibiotic use kills B12 producing bacteria in the guts of farm animals… Even if you only eat grass-fed organic meat you may not be able to absorb the B12 attached to animal protein. It may be more efficient to just skip the animals and get B12 directly from supplements…”
(Capitalised emphasis added)
From Dr Rooke’s article titled “Do carnivores need Vitamin B12 supplements?” at http://baltimorepostexaminer.com/carnivores-need-vitamin-b12-supplements/2013/10/30 and also under the title “Do you need a B12 supplement if you eat meat?” at http://advancedlifestylemedicine.com/?p=1168
Dr. Jennifer Rooke is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine at Morehouse School of Medicine.

This site (EatingOurFuture.com) has a page with much more information regards addressing Vitamin B12 deficiency including reports on bio-available vegan food sources for B12 (eg. nori, chlorella, certain mushrooms, fortified foods) plus reports on choosing supplements.

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Regards Iron Deficiency:

From the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “hemoglobin concentrations and the risk of iron deficiency anemia are SIMILAR for vegans compared with omnivores and other vegetarians. Vegans often consume large amounts of vitamin C–rich foods that markedly improve the absorption of the nonheme iron…” – http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/89/5/1627S.full

From an article in ‘Permanente Journal’ co-authored by several medical doctors: “Plant-based foods that are rich in iron include kidney beans, black beans, soybeans, spinach, raisins, cashews, oatmeal, cabbage, and tomato juice. Iron stores may be lower in individuals who follow a plant-based diet and consume little or no animal products. However, the American Dietetic Association states that iron-deficiency anemia is RARE even in individuals who follow a plant-based diet…” excerpt from “Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets” at – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662288/

This site (EatingOurFuture.com) has a page with much more information about addressing iron deficiency and also the disease risks from having too much iron.

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In this clip titled “How to Prevent Deficiencies on a Vegan Diet” the presenter explores science journal reports regards “protein, B12, DHA, calcium, and many other nutrients and how to get enough of them on a vegan diet” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKwnMCEp3HM
The information sources are listed in the text description field.

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BBC News Reports on Malnutrition in the UK:

Malnutrition affecting ‘3m in UK’ – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7879201.stm

Malnutrition ‘a widespread risk’. Malnutrition can mean a longer hospital stay. A quarter of all adults admitted to hospital and care homes in the UK are at risk of malnutrition, a major survey has found – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7112742.stm

Malnutrition ‘time bomb’ warning – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4317124.stm

Malnutrition ‘crisis’ in UK hospitals – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2116828.stm

Malnutrition fear over patients – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4011635.stm

Doctors ‘often miss malnutrition’ – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3257605.stm

Elderly patients ‘malnourished’ – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1092189.stm

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More to Come!

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Regards Health Benefits of Plant-based Diets:

See this page for quotes & links to science journal studies on the significant health benefits of vegetarian and vegan diets.

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Regards Fruit & Vegetables:

See this page for quotes & links to science journal studies on the great health benefits of eating fruits & vegetables.

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Regards Iron:

See this page for quotes & links to articles about addressing iron deficiency & dangers of excessive intake on plant-based & omnivore diets.

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Regards Protein:

See this page for quotes & links to articles about how protein from plant foods is associated with better health, a longer life span & lower rates of chronic diseases.

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Regards Omega 3 Fatty Acids:

See this page for quotes & links about consuming omega 3 fatty acids on a healthy plant-based vegetarian or vegan diet.

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Regards Vitamin B12:

See this page for excerpts & links to articles about preventing & addressing vitamin b12 deficiency.

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This set of articles were compiled for

www.EatingOurFuture.com

Pages on this Site:

Eating Meat & Dairy Increases Climate Change, Pollution & Damage to Our Environment

Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.

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Eating Meat linked to Higher Rates & Risk of Cancer, Diabetes, Heart Disease & Early Death

Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.

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Scientific Studies on Health Advantages of Vegans & Vegetarians

Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.

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Mass Extinction Loss of Biodiversity caused by Humans

Excerpts & links to articles in news media  science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.

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Dairy Milk Health Problems – Issues & Risks for Related Disease & Illness

This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.

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Risk of Infectious Disease Epidemics from Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria due to Animal Agriculture

This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.

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How the Meat & Dairy Industry Influences Politics, Government, Education, News & Media

This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.

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Eating Seafood & Overfishing is Destroying Oceans, Rivers & Wildlife

Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.

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Studies Find Eating Fish Seafood Not So Healthy With Raised Risks of Disease

Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.

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Are Soy Foods Healthy or Not? Doctors & Nutrition Experts Refute Some Myths

A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”

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