Page Summary: Clips, Quotes & Links for 50+ Science News Reports on the Association of Eating Chicken Eggs with Higher Rates of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Heart Diseases (CVD, CHD, Stroke) & Mortality.
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From the New York Times 2019: “Are Eggs Bad for Your Heart Health? … The new analysis … found that for each additional 300 milligrams a day of cholesterol in the diet, there was a 17 percent increased risk of cardiovascular disease and an 18 percent increased risk of premature death from any cause.
Eggs alone — a large egg has about 185 milligrams of cholesterol, all of it contained in the yolk — had the same more-is-worse effect. Each additional half-egg a day was associated with a 6 percent increased risk of cardiovascular disease and an 8 percent increased risk of early death …
But no matter how heart-healthy the rest of a person’s diet, the more eggs consumed, the greater the risk for cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and premature death. The same was true for dietary cholesterol, independent of other dietary characteristics: The more cholesterol in your diet, the higher the risk for disease. The findings were published in JAMA** …
because heart disease is the most common cause of death in the United States — more common than all forms of cancer combined — even a small relative increase in rates of illness means a large increase in the number of deaths.”
** The report on the study: “Associations of Dietary Cholesterol or Egg Consumption With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality”, JAMA. 2019;321(11):1081-1095; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2728487
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A 2008 study on 21,275 people in the science journal Circulation reports:
– people who ate 1 egg per day had a 28% higher rate of heart failure
– people who ate 2 or more eggs per day had a 64% higher occurrence of heart failure…
compared to people who consume less than 1 egg per week.
In the authors words: “Compared with subjects who reported egg consumption of <1 per week, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for HF [heart failure] were 1.28 (1.02 to 1.61) and 1.64 (1.08 to 2.49) for egg consumption of 1 per day and ≥2 per day…”
Reference: “Egg Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians’ Health Study”, Circulation, 2008;117:512-516; at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/117/4/512
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Regards egg consumption and death from cancer and all-causes, a 2016 study of more than 130,000 people published in JAMA Internal Medicine reports: “Replacing animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality.”
From the results section: “The HRs [hazard ratios] of all-cause mortality … when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from”:
– eggs = 0.81; meaning a 19% lower rate of death;
– processed red meat = 0.66; meaning a 34% lower rate of death;
– unprocessed red meat = 0.88; being a 12% lower rate of death;
– poultry = 0.94; a 6% lower rate of death;
– fish = 0.94; a 6% lower rate of death;
– dairy = 0.92; an 8% lower rate of death …
by consuming protein from plant sources instead of from those animal products.
“The substitution associations were generally stronger for death from CVD [cardiovascular disease] and other causes than from cancer, except for eggs, for which substitution for 3%-energy plant protein was associated with 21% lower cancer mortality … ”
Reference: “Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality”, JAMA Internal Medicine, 2016 Oct 1;176(10):1453-1463; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27479196 and full article at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5048552/
A related short clip featuring Dr Kim Allan Williams* MD is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LU2kSwJsA4M
With reference to the study he states: “The central message is here: that processed red meat is associated with cancer deaths but eggs are actually more associated with it … Cardiovascular disease: nothing is safe – fish, chicken … the worst by far is processed red meat … THERE ARE NO SAFE ANIMAL PRODUCTS … ”
* Dr Williams has served on numerous national medical boards inc American Heart Association (AHA), American Medical Association (AMA), American College of Cardiology (ACC) … more details listed in the description of the youtube video.
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A 2013 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that:
– people who eat 1 or more eggs per day have a 42% higher “hazard ratio” (incidence) of developing type 2 diabetes
– diabetics have a 69% higher occurrence of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) from eating just one or more eggs per day…
as compared to people who never eat eggs or have less than 1 egg per week.
In the authors words: “Comparison of the highest category (≥1 egg/d) of egg consumption with the lowest (<1 egg/wk or never) resulted in a pooled HR [hazard ratio]… 1.42… for type 2 diabetes. Of the studies conducted in diabetic patients, the pooled HR (95% CI) was 1.69… for overall CVD.”
Reference: “Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;98 (1):146-59; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676423 and http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/98/1/146.full
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Regards Eggs & Diabetes, Dr Michael Greger MD reports “Even just a single egg a week may increase the risk of diabetes – the leading cause of lower-limb amputations, kidney failure, and new cases of blindness.” The 2 minute video presentation is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y96iiU31ySs
Some excerpts: “Researchers found a stepwise increase in risk the more and more eggs people ate. Eating just a single egg a week appeared to increase the odds of diabetes by 76%. Two eggs a week appeared to double the odds, and just a single egg a day tripled the odds. Three times greater risk of type 2 diabetes, one of the leading causes of death and amputations, blindness, and kidney failure… In 2009, Harvard researchers found that a single egg a day or more was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women, and that finding has since also been confirmed in other populations… Once we then have diabetes, eggs may hasten our death. Eating one egg a day or more appears to shorten anyone’s lifespan, but may double the all-cause mortality for those with diabetes…”
The text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/eggs-and-diabetes/
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A 2014 report in the British Journal of Nutrition considers “Evidence suggests that egg intake may be implicated in the aetiology of sex hormone-related cancers.” They found through meta-analysis that “consuming ≥ 5 eggs/week was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer compared with no egg consumption” and “the summary RR [relative risk] for an increase of 5 eggs consumed/week was 1·09… for ovarian cancer” and “1·47… for fatal prostate cancer...”
The review concludes: “high egg intake may be associated with a modestly elevated risk of breast cancer, and a positive association [meaning higher level of risk] between egg intake and ovarian and fatal prostate cancers cannot be ruled out.”
Reference: “Egg intake and cancers of the breast, ovary and prostate: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies”, British Journal of Nutrition, 2015 Oct 14;114(7):1099-107; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293984
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Dr Greger clip “Egg Cholesterol in the Diet” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNby8ongJsM
Summary: “Cardiology experts warn that eating even a single egg a day may exceed the safe upper limit for cholesterol intake.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/egg-cholesterol-in-the-diet/
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International Journal of Cancer: “Participants who ate ≥ 25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg ∼ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers…”
Reference: “Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies”, Int J Cancer. 2016 May 15;138(10):2368-82; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26685908
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Dr Greger clip “Does Cholesterol Size Matter?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVqiv_7qJaI
Excerpt: “the landmark 2013 study showing that choline from eggs appears to increase the risk of stroke, heart attack, and death…”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-cholesterol-size-matter/
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This site contains pages with hundreds of science reports on the higher rates of disease & death associated with eating red meat, dairy, chicken/poultry, eggs, fish/seafood & of the lower rates associated with eating healthy plant-based diets high in fruits & vegetables & nuts.
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Regards Prostate Cancer and Eating Eggs the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk… Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake… Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic… consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk” of “prostate cancer recurrence or progression”.
Reference: “Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010 Mar;91(3):712-21; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20042525
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Regards Eggs and Prostate Cancer the journal Cancer Prevention Research reports on a study of 27,607 men – “Men who consumed 2.5 or more eggs per week had an 81% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer compared with men who consumed less than 0.5 eggs per week (HR: 1.81…) … In conclusion, consumption of eggs may increase risk of developing a lethal form of prostate cancer among healthy men.”
Reference: “Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: incidence and survival”, Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2110-21; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21930800 and full report at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232297/
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Dr Greger clip “Debunking Egg Industry Myths” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZPulhmNEDs
He summarizes the findings of a 2013 study in the science journal Atherosclerosis: “Overall those that ate the most eggs had a 19% increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a 68% increased risk of diabetes, and then once you get diabetes, an 85% increased risk of heart disease… Less than a single egg a day was associated with a significantly increased risk of heart disease. Just over half an egg a day may increase heart disease risk between 6 and 40% and the risk of diabetes 29%…”
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Regards coronary heart disease (CHD) a study of 117,000 people found that in “comparing more than 1 egg per day with less than 1 egg per week” the higher egg consumption was associated with double the relative risk (RR) of CHD in diabetic men (RR of 2.02) and 49% higher risk in diabetic women (RR 1.49).
Reference: “A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women”, Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999 Apr 21;281(15):1387-94; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10217054
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A 2013 article by Dr Michael Greger M.D. is titled “Eggs, Cigarettes, and Atherosclerosis.” The video version is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rO4kdtMq8rs The article’s introduction states “A study in the journal Atherosclerosis found that eating just 3 eggs or more a week was associated with a significant increase in artery-clogging plaque buildup in people’s carotid arteries going to their brain, a strong predictor of stroke, heart attack, and death. If you check out my 3-min video Eggs vs. Cigarettes in Atherosclerosis you’ll see they found an exponential increase in arterial plaque buildup for smokers and egg-eaters. Those that ate the most eggs had as much as two-thirds the risk of those that smoked the most, the equivalent of a pack-a-day habit for 40 years or more…” at https://nutritionfacts.org/2013/09/10/eggs-vs-cigarettes-in-atherosclerosis/
The study published in a 2012 edition of the journal Atherosclerosis states that regards their assessment of “1262 patients… Carotid plaque area… increased exponentially with pack-years of smoking and with egg-yolk years. Plaque area in patients consuming <2 eggs per week (n = 388) was 125 ± 129 mm(2), versus 132 ± 142 mm(2) in those consuming 3 or more eggs per week (n = 603); (p < 0.0001 after adjustment for age)…. Our findings suggest that regular consumption of egg yolk should be avoided by persons at risk of cardiovascular disease…”
Reference: “Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque”, Atherosclerosis, 2012 Oct;224(2):469-73; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22882905
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Regards eating eggs and diabetes a 2016 meta-analysis of studies on 219,979 participants states “there was a 39% higher risk of DM [type 2 diabetes mellitus] comparing highest with lowest egg consumption in US studies…”
Reference: “Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016 Feb;103(2):474-80; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26739035
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Dr Greger MD clip “Eggs & Arterial Function” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PuRnT_ojwQU . . . Summary: “Even studies funded by the American Egg Board show our arteries benefit from not eating eggs.”
Excerpt: “In reaction to the study that found a similar exponential increase in artery-clogging plaque in smokers and egg-eaters… The Egg Board paid for a follow up [study], using folks who were even worse off… They report that “egg consumption had no effects on endothelial function as compared to sausage and cheese.” Compared to the “ingestion of a sausage-and-cheese [breakfast] sandwich.” Yet, instead of sounding the alarm that eating eggs is as bad for arterial function as a “McDonald’s Sausage McMuffin,” they conclude “[E]gg consumption was found to be non-detrimental to endothelial function.” And cholesterol as well. They started out with a life-threatening cholesterol, and ended up with a life-threatening cholesterol.
Why didn’t it get even worse? Because there’s a plateau effect; you can basically max out on cholesterol absorption. After a certain level of intake, it’s just another match to the fire. If you’re already consuming the Standard American Diet, averaging 400 milligrams of cholesterol daily, even add, you know, two jumbo eggs to one’s diet, and it may already be a lost cause. But, in people trying to eat healthy, those same two eggs could shoot their cholesterol up 20 points, whereas a fat-free, cholesterol-free egg substitute “was beneficial.”
So, not eating eggs lowered cholesterol levels. Not eating eggs “improved endothelial function”—and that’s what these people needed. Their arteries were already hurting; they needed something to bring the fire down, not throw more matches at it.
Same with the other Egg Board study. They were apparently eating so unhealthy, adding eggs couldn’t make things much worse. But, eating oatmeal instead of eggs made things better, helping to quench the fire. So, even the Egg Board-funded studies both said not eating eggs is better for our arteries—yet, that’s the study pro-egg industry folks cite to claim beneficial vascular effects.”
Text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/eggs-and-arterial-function/
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A 2008 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that:
– people who ate 7 or more eggs per week, or 1 or more per day, had a 23% higher rate of dying (“mortality”) and
– diabetics who ate that amount of eggs had a 201% higher rate of dying…
as compared to those who consume less than 1 egg per week.
In the author’s words: “… egg consumption was positively related to mortality [dying], more strongly so in diabetic subjects, in the study population.”
Reference: “Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians’ Health Study”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):964-9; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400720
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Regards eggs and cardiovascular (CVD) disease a 2015 report in the Atherosclerosis journal concludes: “Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification… The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI.”
As compared to those who ate less than one egg per week those who ate the most eggs (of 7 or more per week) had 80 percent higher coronary artery calcium scores; a measure of heart disease risk.
It was a “Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease…”
Reference: “Egg consumption and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic men and women”, Atherosclerosis. 2015 Aug;241(2):305-12; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062990
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A 2012 newspaper article is titled “Breakfast egg ‘can raise heart disease risk‘” Excerpts: “Atkins-style dietary changes as small as replacing a breakfast bread roll with an egg can increase the chance of dying from heart disease, according to a study. Making the seemingly insignificant alteration raises the risk of dying from a heart attack or stroke by five per cent, an international team of researchers found.
Their study followed the health of more than 43,000 middle-aged Swedish women over 15 years. They discovered those who stuck to Atkins-style diets – low in carbohydrates and high in protein (‘LCHP’) – were at a 28 per cent raised risk of having a cardiovascular event over that period.
But even slightly changing the dietary mix in favour of more protein, increased the risk to heart health. The study, published in the British Medical Journal, is the latest to cast doubt on the long term safety of such diets…”
Reference to the related study: “Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study”; BMJ 2012; 344; at
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Dr Michael Greger MD clip titled “Eggs, Choline, & Cancer” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=023jyVJ11J4 Summary notes: “Choline may be the reason egg consumption is associated with prostate cancer progression and death.”
Excerpt: “Harvard researchers took more than a thousand men with early stage prostate cancer, and followed them for a couple years to see if there was anything in their diet associated with a resurgence of the cancer, such as spread to the bone.
Compared to men who hardly ate any eggs, men who ate even less than a single egg a day had a “significant 2-fold increase [in the risk of] prostate cancer progression.” The only thing worse was poultry consumption—up to four times the risk of progression among high-risk men. They think it might be the meat carcinogens—the heterocyclic amines—that, for some reason, build up more in chicken and turkey muscle than in other meats… But, what about the eggs?… It may be the choline…
“Choline intake and the risk of lethal prostate cancer.” Choline consumption associated not just with getting cancer, and spreading cancer—but also, significantly increased risk of dying from it. Those that ate the most had “a 70% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer.” Another recent study found that “[m]en who consumed 2.5 or more eggs per week [that’s just like one egg every three days] had an 81% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer.” Now, it could just be the cholesterol in eggs that’s increasing fatal cancer risk; but, it could also be that choline.
Maybe that’s why meat, milk, and eggs have all been associated, at one time or another, with advanced prostate cancer—because of the choline…”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/eggs-choline-and-cancer/
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Regards egg consumption and cancer, the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention reports: “We found an association between higher intake of eggs and increased risk of several cancers.”
Further notes: “Previous studies have suggested that egg consumption may increase the risk of colorectal cancer and some other cancers… we conducted a case-control study… including 3,539 cancer cases and 2,032 hospital controls… there was a significant increase in the odds of cancers” with the following odds ratios for those “with a high vs low egg intake”:
– 1.71 for all cancer sites combined ie. 71% higher rates.
– 2.02 for cancers of oral cavity and pharynx.
– 1.67 for cancers of upper aerodigestive tract.
– 1.64 for colorectum cancer.
– 1.59 for lung cancer.
– 2.86 for breast cancer.
– 1.89 for prostate cancer.
– 2.23 for bladder cancer
Reference: “Egg consumption and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay”, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(5):869-76; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20104980
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Regards egg consumption and colorectal cancer, a report in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention concluded: “The presence of a variety of bioactive compounds, including cholesterol, lends biological plausibility to a role of egg consumption in the aetiology of colorectal cancer.”
Regards the study: “We systematically reviewed 15 previous case-control and cohort studies that examined egg consumption as a risk factor for cancers of the colon and rectum. Nine of the 11 studies of colon cancer reported risk estimates consistent with a positive association” meaning higher rates of cancer.
“in three of these studies the association was statistically significant… in every study that met specific design criteria (defined a priori), risk estimates were consistent with a positive association. Two studies reported seven- to eight-fold increases in risk with high egg consumption…”
Reference: “Egg consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum”, The European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 1994 May;3(3):237-45; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8061589
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A 2014 report in the European Journal of Nutrition investigates eggs and gastro-intestinal (GI) neoplasms – defined by google as “a new and abnormal growth of tissue in a part of the body, especially as a characteristic of cancer.” From analysis of “424,867 participants and 18,852 GI neoplasm cases” they conclude “This study provides evidence that egg consumption is associated with a positive dose-response association [meaning higher risk] with the development of GI neoplasms.”
Specifically they found the “combined odds ratio (OR) was calculated to 1.15… increase in risk. The correlation was stronger for colon cancers 1.29…”
They stated that the ORs for developing neoplasms were:
– 1.14 for eating less than 3 eggs per week
– 1.25 for eating greater-than-or-equal to 3 eggs per week.
That indicates a higher risk with higher consumption of eggs.
Reference: “Egg consumption and risk of GI neoplasms: dose-response meta-analysis and systematic review”, European Journal of Nutrition, 2014 Oct;53(7):1581-90; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24500371
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Dr Neal Barnard, MD “How Egg-Industry-Funded Studies Harm Public Health” on youtube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FyG8wr0gWIA
Notes: “The systematic review was limited to studies published after 2003, when nearly all cholesterol studies were funded by the egg industry, in contrast to earlier years when governmental bodies played a bigger role in cholesterol research. Of 12 included studies, 10 were funded by the egg industry seeking to make cholesterol look innocuous.”
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Regards eggs and type 2 diabetes (T2D) a 2009 report in a journal of the American Diabetes Association concluded: “These data suggest that high levels of egg consumption (daily) are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women.”
On the specific results for men: “Compared with no egg consumption, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were” as follows:
– 1.09 for <1 egg per week; 9% higher rate of T2D.
– 1.18 for 2–4 eggs per week; 18% higher rate of T2D.
– 1.46 for 5–6 eggs per week; 46% higher rate of T2D.
– 1.58 for ≥7 eggs/week; 58% higher rate of T2D.
The “Corresponding multivariable hazard ratios for women were” as follows:
– 1.06 for <1 egg per week; 6% higher rate of T2D.
– 1.19 for 2–4 eggs per week; 19% higher rate of T2D.
– 1.18 for 5–6 eggs per week; 18% higher rate of T2D.
– 1.77 for ≥7 eggs/week; 77% higher rate of T2D.
The report covered 20,703 men and 36,295 women from two prospective cohort studies.
Reference: “Egg Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women”, Diabetes Care, 2009 Feb; 32(2): 295–300; http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/32/2/295 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2628696/
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A 2011 article by Dr Michael Greger MD is titled “How Our Gut Bacteria Can Use Eggs to Accelerate Cancer.” The summary note states “The reason egg consumption is associated with elevated cancer risk may be the TMAO, considered the “smoking gun” of microbiome-disease interactions.”
Excerpt: “Studies going back to the 70s hinted at a correlation between eggs and colon cancer. But, that was just based on so-called ecological data, showing that countries that ate more eggs tended to have higher cancer rates. But, that could be due to a million things, right? It needed to be put to the test.
This started in the 80s, and by the 1990s, 15 studies had been published: ten suggesting “a direct association” between egg consumption and colorectal cancer, and five showing “no association.” By 2014, there were dozens more studies published, confirming that eggs may indeed be playing a role in the development of colon cancer—though no relationship was discovered between egg consumption and the development of precancerous polyps, which suggests that “egg[s] might be involved [more] in the promotional [stage of cancer growth—accelerating cancer growth, rather than] initiating [the cancer in the first place].”
Which brings us to 2015. Maybe it’s the TMAO, made from the choline in meat and eggs, that’s promoting cancer growth. And, indeed, in the Women’s Health Initiative study, women with the highest TMAO levels in their blood “had…approximately [three] times greater risk of rectal cancer”—suggesting “TMAO [levels] may serve as a potential predictor of increased colorectal cancer risk.”
Though there may be more evidence for elevated breast cancer risk with egg consumption than prostate cancer risk, the only other study to date on TMAO and cancer looked at prostate cancer, and did, indeed, find a higher risk…”
From the article at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/how-our-gut-bacteria-can-use-eggs-to-accelerate-cancer/
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A 2017 study on 105,999 people found that those who eat one or more eggs per day were found to have
– a 25% higher occurrence of heart failure
– a 42% higher rate of developing diabetes mellitus and
– among those diabetic people a 69% higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and 54% higher occurrence of coronary heart disease.
Published in the journal Frontiers in Nutrition the author’s conclusion states: “Our meta-analysis suggests an elevated risk of incident HF with frequent egg consumption.” More specifically it states “When comparing the highest (≥1/day) to the lowest category of egg consumption, pooled relative risk [RR] of HF [heart failure] was 1.25…”
Further notes from the report: “those who ate 1+ egg per day were 42% more likely to develop DM [diabetes mellitus] and among those with DM frequent egg consumption was associated with increased CVD [cardiovascular disease] comorbidity (Hazard Ratio: 1.69…). Similarly, Rong et al. in their analysis demonstrated a higher risk of [coronary heart disease] CHD (RR: 1.54…) among people with diabetes…”
Reference: “Egg Consumption and Incidence of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies”, Front. Nutr., 27 March 2017; at
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“Who Says Eggs Aren’t Healthy or Safe?” is a Dr Michael Greger 2014 video that shows how the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) says eggs cannot by law be marketed as “healthy” or “nutritious”… “because they exceed the limit for cholesterol”… “they can’t even refer to eggs as safe… because more than 100,000 Americans are salmonella-poisoned every year from eggs…” See the clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtGf2FuzKo4 with text transcript at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/who-says-eggs-arent-healthy-or-safe/
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On the risks of cardiovascular (CVD) disease and diabetes from eating eggs, a 2013 report in the Official Journal of the European Atherosclerosis Society concludes: “Our study suggests that there is a dose-response positive association between egg consumption and the risk of CVD and diabetes.”
Notes: “Fourteen studies involving 320,778 subjects were included.”
They found that the pooled relative risks (RRs) “for the highest vs lowest egg intake” were:
– 1.19 (19%) higher rates of CVD
– 1.68 (68%) higher rates of diabetes
– 1.83 (83%) higher rates of CVD for diabetes patients
Reference: “Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: A meta-analysis”, Atherosclerosis, 2013 Aug;229(2):524-30; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643053
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Regards egg consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) the conclusion of a report in the American Journal of Epidemiology states: “high egg and cholesterol intakes before and during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of GDM.”
Specifically, “Compared with no egg consumption, adjusted relative risks for GDM were”: 1.54 for 7–9 eggs per week and 2.52 for more than ≥10 eggs/week.
Reference: “Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Maternal Egg and Cholesterol Intake”, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 173, Issue 6, 15 March 2011, Pages 649–658; https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/173/6/649/182748
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In a 2015 article titled “Meat and Eggs Increase Risk for Stroke” Dr Neal Barnard reports: “Red meat, processed meat, and eggs increase risk for stroke, according to a study published online in the journal Stroke. Researchers followed the diets of 11,601 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and monitored protein sources and stroke incidence rates. The highest intakes of red and processed meat products were associated with an increased risk for total stroke by 41 and 24 percent, respectively, compared with those who consumed the least. In a subanalysis of stroke type, those who consumed the most red meat had a 47 percent increased risk for ischemic stroke, compared with those who consumed the least. Those who consumed the most eggs had a 41 percent increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke, compared with those who consumed the least.”
A quote from the study “higher egg consumption was found to be associated with risk for hemorrhagic stroke” with a hazard ratio of 1.41; meaning a 41% higher rate among those with the highest egg intake.
Reference: “Association of dietary protein consumption with incident silent cerebral infarcts and stroke: the ARIC study”, Stroke. 2015 Dec;46(12):3443-50; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659717/
Click the following link for many more science and news reports on the Diseases Associated with Red Meat Consumption
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Article by Dr Joel Kahn, MD: “Are Eggs Healthy Or Not? A Cardiologist Explains.”
Excerpts: “In 2011, the US government published the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and included eggs among the “foods to reduce.” Eating up to one egg a day (including those found in breads and baked goods) was considered acceptable for healthy folks, but in patients with heart issues or diabetes, the recommendation was to eat less than 0.4 ounces a day. (That’s about ¼ of an egg)…
In October 2012, a team of medical researchers led by Dr. David Jenkins (the creator of the glycemic index), decided to investigate eggs. Using ultrasound, they looked at the amount of plaque found in carotid arteries in the neck in over 1,000 people. Patients who ate more than three eggs a week had increased plaque compared to those who ate two or less eggs a week, even after other risks like smoking were factored in…
researchers looked at 17 studies on eggs and health… among people with diabetes, those whose egg intake was highest had 1.5 times the risk of heart disease compares to those who ate the fewest eggs…
data from the Cleveland Clinic… began with a report that red meat contains carnitine, which can be converted to a chemical in the blood called TMAO. Earlier research has shown that TMAO may lay down new plaque in arteries, leading to heart attack, stroke, and death. However, in order to convert carnitine from red meat into TMAO, it requires bacteria in the gut. Only omnivores created TMAO, the vegans studied did not, because they had different kinds of bacteria living in their bowels…
in the new Cleveland study, eating two hard-boiled eggs led to a rise in TMAO in the blood within minutes, just like eating red meat…
they looked at over 4,000 patients who’d had a heart catheterization and the higher the TMAO level, the greater the chance of heart attack, stroke, or dying over follow-up for three years…”
Full article is at
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Dr Michael Greger clip: “Carnitine, Choline, Cancer, & Cholesterol: The TMAO Connection – a landmark new article in the New England Journal of Medicine shows that choline in eggs, poultry, dairy, and fish produces the same toxic TMAO as carnitine in red meat – which may help explain plant-based protection from heart disease and prostate cancer.”
Text transcript: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/carnitine-choline-cancer-and-cholesterol-the-tmao-connection/
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Dr Neal Barnard article “Studies Link Eggs to Stroke, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Cancer” at http://www.pcrm.org/nbBlog/studies-link-eggs-to-stroke-diabetes-heart-disease-cancer
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A 2015 article titled “Gut Flora-Dependent TMAO: New Studies Extend Its Reach Beyond the Arteries to the Heart and Kidneys. Is the gut microbiome the body’s largest endocrine organ?
Excerpts:” There’s been another shake-up in our understanding of the causes of cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol is still king. But it now shares explanatory power with a swarm of bacteria resident in the digestive tract. The first studies of these bacteria found direct links between the chemical product of their metabolism and the vascular events leading to heart attack. Now studies are linking these bacteria to heart failure and even chronic kidney disease…
These studies showed how certain bacteria found primarily in the intestines turn choline — a byproduct of lecithin, found in meat and eggs — into trimethylamine (TMA), which is absorbed into the bloodstream and metabolized by the liver. There, it is transformed into the substance that appears to be a key player in a number of disease processes: TMAO. These studies also showed a clear link between higher TMAO levels and elevated three-year risk of heart attack, stroke and death…”
Full article at https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/2015/02/gut-flora-dependent-tmao-new-studies-extend-its-reach-beyond-the-arteries-to-the-heart-and-kidneys/
The “Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center.”
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Dr Greger MD clip “Eggs and Cholesterol: Patently False and Misleading Claims” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8g8ASQZ0dZw Summary: “Egg industry claims about egg safety found to be patently false, misleading, and deceptive by the U.S. Court of Appeals.”
For decades, “on the basis of concerns from the American Heart Association and consumer groups, the Federal Trade Commission carried out successful legal action—upheld by the Supreme Court—to compel the egg industry to cease and desist from false and misleading advertising that eggs had no harmful effects on health.”…
Over the last 36 years, the American Egg Board has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to convince people eggs are not going to kill them—and, it’s working. “In combination with aggressive nutrition[al] science and public relations efforts, research shows that the advertising has been effective in decreasing consumers’ concerns over eggs and cholesterol/heart health.” … Currently, they’re targeting moms…”
Text transcript at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/eggs-and-cholesterol-patently-false-and-misleading-claims/
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From The Canadian Journal of Cardiology: “There are good reasons for long-standing recommendations that dietary cholesterol should be limited to less than 200 mg/day; a single large egg yolk contains approximately 275 mg of cholesterol (more than a day’s worth of cholesterol)... Dietary cholesterol, including egg yolks, is harmful to the arteries. Patients at risk of cardiovascular disease should limit their intake of cholesterol. Stopping the consumption of egg yolks after a stroke or myocardial infarction would be like quitting smoking after a diagnosis of lung cancer: a necessary action, but late. The evidence presented in the current review suggests that the widespread perception among the public and health care professionals that dietary cholesterol is benign is misplaced, and that improved education is needed to correct this misconception.”
Reference: Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease“, The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 2010 Nov;26(9):e336-9; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21076725
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Turkish Society of Cardiology: “Current guidelines recommend to restrict dietary cholesterol consumption to 200 mg daily for cardiovascular health. Therefore, when making dietary suggestions especially for patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, severe risk factors and hypercholesterolemia, or a family history of premature atherosclerosis, we should keep in mind that an average egg yolk contains >200 mg cholesterol even though its negative effect on serum lipid levels is less than that of other sources of dietary cholesterol.”
Reference: “Egg consumption and cardiovascular health”, Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. (Archives of the Turkish Society of Cardiology), 2009 Jul;37(5):353-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875912
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From Nutrition journal: “Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States… Considering eggs are a rich source of dietary cholesterol (typically containing 141-234 mg per egg), individuals with increased risk for CVD are advised not to consume eggs. Furthermore, based on the 2012 AHA/ACC guidelines, individuals with lower risk for CVD have previously been advised to avoid consuming eggs due to the high content of dietary cholesterol. Rather than strictly limiting cholesterol intake, the AHA and ACC guidelines now recommend dietary patterns that emphasize fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, and nuts as an approach to favorably alter blood lipid levels. Of note, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have removed the recommendation of limiting cholesterol intake to no more than 300 mg per day; however, the guidelines advise that individuals should eat as little dietary cholesterol as possible while consuming a healthy eating pattern.”
Reference: “Egg consumption and heart health: A review”, Nutrition, 2017 May;37:79-85; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28359368
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Dr Michael Greger clip “Egg Industry Response to Choline and TMAO – How the egg industry funded a study designed to cover up the toxic trimethylamine oxide [TMAO] reaction to egg consumption.” The clip is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IlA5gi8CH0 The text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/egg-industry-response-to-choline-and-tmao/
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“Seven Dangers of Eating Eggs” by Janice Stanger, Ph.D. in Human Development and Aging – an excerpt: “SIX. Got salmonella, a disease-causing bacteria that causes nasty food poisoning? Salmonella bacteria, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), are frequently found on the outside as well as on the inside of eggs. The CDC recommends eating only thoroughly cooked eggs and tells you to “wash hands and all food contact surface areas (counter tops, utensils, dishes, and cutting boards) with soap and water after contact with raw eggs. Then disinfect the food contact surfaces using a sanitizing agent, such as bleach, following label instructions.” Do you really want to go to all this trouble every time you touch an egg, or have something so full of bacteria in your refrigerator?…”
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Dr Greger further discusses the dangers of egg consumption & raised TMAO levels – associated with degenerative diseases – in this short clip titled “How to Develop a Healthy Gut Ecosystem” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JIy3q-8MQE
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What about the nutritional quality of free range vs factory-farm eggs? From a report in the Poultry Science journal: “The public perceives that the nutritional quality of eggs produced as free range is superior to that of eggs produced in cages. Therefore, this study compared the nutrient content… Eggs from the range production environment had more total fat (P < 0.05), monounsaturated fat (P < 0.05), and polyunsaturated fat (P < 0.001) than eggs produced by caged hens. Levels of n-3 fatty acids were also higher (P < 0.05), at 0.17% in range eggs vs. 0.14% in cage eggs. The range environment had no effect on cholesterol (163.42 and 165.38 mg/50 g in eggs from caged and range hens, respectively). Vitamin A and E levels were not affected by the husbandry to which the hens were exposed…
Although range production did not influence the cholesterol level in the egg, there was an increase in fat levels in eggs produced on the range.”
Reference: “Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities”, Poult Sci. 2011 Jul;90(7):1600-8; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=21673178
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Article: “Eating Runny Eggs Is Not Safe” by Dr Neal Barnard, MD. Excerpts:
“Something stinks about the British Food Standard Agency’s new recommendation that it is safe for pregnant women, infants, and older adults to start eating runny eggs. Maybe it’s because the advice only applies to eggs that bear the red British Lion symbol, a mark of the British Egg Industry Council, which is surely more interested in selling eggs than in health and safety. But British Lion symbol or not, salmonella will always be a risk—for everyone—when eating raw and undercooked eggs.
Here in the United States, our government’s advice on nutrition and food safety undoubtedly has some problems—and is also influenced by industry interests like the American Egg Board. But the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does get it right by warning that “because foods of animal origin may be contaminated with salmonella, people should not eat raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, or meat.”
Even with this warning, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration estimates that 79,000 cases of foodborne illness and 30 deaths each year are caused by eating eggs contaminated with salmonella. Most people develop diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and vomiting that can last up to a week…
But salmonella is not the only danger found in eggs. All eggs, no matter how they are prepared (raw, runny, poached, scrambled, boiled), increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.
In the United States, the industry-backed American Egg Board tried to get Americans to forget about these risks by attempting to get the federal government to remove cholesterol warnings the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Eggs, which are loaded with cholesterol that contributes to heart disease, are the No. 1 source for cholesterol in the American diet. But the egg industry wanted to dupe Americans into believing that cholesterol isn’t a health concern. In a systematic review used to sway the Dietary Guidelines, 10 of the 12 studies were funded by the egg industry seeking to make cholesterol look innocuous. But the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine was able counter the American Egg Board to keep cholesterol warnings in the Dietary Guidelines.”
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2019 report: “Egg Industry Continues to Influence Dietary Guidelines, FOIA Document Reveals” at https://www.pcrm.org/news/news-releases/egg-industry-continues-influence-dietary-guidelines-foia-document-reveals
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“What’s Wrong With Eggs? The Truth About The Egg Industry” is a short clip by Erin Janus on youtube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utPkDP3T7R4
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Dr John McDougall article “The Egg Industry: Exposing a Source of Food Poisoning.”
Excerpts: “I wrote more than three decades ago, “Of the six studies in the medical literature that fail to demonstrate a significant rise in blood cholesterol level with the consumption of whole eggs, three were paid for by the American Egg Board, one by the Missouri Egg Merchandising Council, and one by the Egg Program of the California Department of Agriculture. Support for the sixth paper was not identified.”
The methods used to show no harm from eating cholesterol (animals) are designing beforehand the experiment to get the results you are looking for. To show little or no increase in cholesterol levels from eating eggs, you first saturate your subjects with cholesterol from other sources (meat, etc.).
Studies show that once people consume more than 400 to 800 milligrams of cholesterol per day, additional cholesterol has only a minor effect on blood cholesterol levels. Candidates for an experiment are easy to find since the typical American diet is based on a high intake of cholesterol (meat, poultry, dairy, and fish). Study designs can also use improper control subjects and inadequate time periods for the ingested cholesterol to show effects in the blood…
In the past two decades, the American Egg Board and the Egg Nutrition Center have become increasingly active in using research to increase demand for eggs. Of the 41 studies on dietary cholesterol included in a 1992 meta-analysis, 29% were paid for by industry, mainly the egg industry. Nine years later, in a 2001 meta-analysis, that figure had risen to 41%. Two decades later, in a 2013 review, the figure was 92%. The food industry now dominates research on dietary cholesterol…
Well-designed studies by investigators independent of the food industry clearly demonstrate the detrimental effects of eggs on blood cholesterol levels. The actual impact of egg feeding is seen when people who eat little cholesterol are fed eggs. When 17 lactovegetarian college students (consuming 97 mg of cholesterol daily) were fed one extra-large egg daily for three weeks, their “bad” LDL-cholesterol increased by 12%.
The real life effects of eggs were investigated in a large population of nearly 6,000 vegetarians and 5,000 non-vegetarians over a period of 13 years. Within this group of nearly 11,000 people, those eating eggs more than six times a week had a 2.47 times greater risk of dying of heart disease than those eating less than one egg a week.
A 50-year study of nearly 2,000 middle-aged men (the Western Electric Study) found that a dietary reduction in cholesterol intake of 430 mg/dL (the same as two eggs) was associated with a 43% reduction in long-term risk of coronary heart disease, a 25% reduction of risk of death from all causes, and three years longer life expectancy. In addition to heart disease, a higher cholesterol intake was also associated with more risk for strokes, blood clots, high blood pressure, and cancers of the breast, prostate, colon, lung, and brain.
Cholesterol is the most damaging to our arteries when it is present in an oxidized form (as free radicals). Eggs and egg-derived products are the main source of oxidized cholesterol in our diet…”
Article at https://www.drmcdougall.com/misc/2016nl/jan/eggindustry.htm
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“CRACKED: An exposé of the UK egg industry” is a 4 minute clip by Viva UK at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4rDNRWvtI4
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“Lurking Beneath the Shell: Health Concerns with Eggs” is a -page report by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. The introduction states:
“There are many reasons to eliminate eggs from your diet. Recent studies suggest that egg consumption can cause heart disease, diabetes, and even cancer. Eggs have zero dietary fiber, and more than 60 percent of their calories are from fat — a large portion of which is saturated fat. An average-sized egg also contains an unhealthful 186 milligrams of cholesterol. To put this amount in perspective, those with high cholesterol, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease are advised to limit their daily intake to less than 200 milligrams.
But any dietary cholesterol is unnecessary, as our bodies already produce more than enough for our needs. Another health hazard is contamination. Porous and fragile shells and crowded egg farms allow eggs to become the perfect host for salmonella, the leading cause of food poisoning in the United States…”
For a list of plant-based egg substitutes (for cooking) refer to the picture on page 2 in the report at http://www.pcrm.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/health/Nutrition-Fact-Sheets/Eggs-fact-sheet.pdf
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Dr Greger clip “Eggs and Choline: Something Fishy” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtlwhsBSWtI
Summary: “Too much choline—a compound concentrated in eggs and other animal products—can make bodily secretions smell like rotting fish, and may increase the risk of heart disease, due to conversion in the gut to trimethylamine…
Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic found dietary choline, found predominantly in “eggs, milk, liver, red meat, poultry,…and fish”… may contribute to plaque buildup in peoples’ arteries, and set us up for heart disease, stroke, death, and, if that’s not bad enough, open-heart surgery…
This new research adds choline to the list of dietary culprits with the potential to increase the risk of heart disease, making eggs a double whammy—the most concentrated common source of both choline and cholesterol.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/eggs-and-choline-something-fishy/
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Click the image to open a larger easier-to-read version
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Dr Michael Greger clip: “Heterocyclic Amines in Eggs, Cheese, & Creatine? Even vegetarians could potentially be exposed to the carcinogens typically formed by cooking meat through eggs, cheese, creatine sports supplements, and cigarette smoke.”
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Click the image to open a larger easier-to-read version
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2018 news report: “Footage shows ‘horrific conditions’ endured by 500,000 chickens in farm supplying eggs to major supermarkets. Big & Fresh brand of eggs are sold in most of UK’s leading supermarkets, including Tesco and Asda…”
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More to come!!
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Pages on this Site:
Eating Meat & Dairy Increases Climate Change, Pollution & Damage to Our Environment
Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.
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Eating Meat linked to Higher Rates & Risk of Cancer, Diabetes, Heart Disease & Early Death
Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.
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Scientific Studies on Health Advantages of Vegans & Vegetarians
Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.
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Mass Extinction Loss of Biodiversity caused by Humans
Excerpts & links to articles in news media science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.
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Dairy Milk Health Problems – Issues & Risks for Related Disease & Illness
This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.
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Risk of Infectious Disease Epidemics from Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria due to Animal Agriculture
This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.
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How the Meat & Dairy Industry Influences Politics, Government, Education, News & Media
This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.
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Eating Seafood & Overfishing is Destroying Oceans, Rivers & Wildlife
Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.
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Studies Find Eating Fish Seafood Not So Healthy With Raised Risks of Disease
Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.
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Are Soy Foods Healthy or Not? Doctors & Nutrition Experts Refute Some Myths
A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”
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