Diabetes Risks Raised by Eating Meat & Reduced by Plant-based Diets.

Page Summary: Clips, Quotes & Links to 40+ Science News Reports on the Association of Meat Consumption with Higher Rates & Risks of Diabetes & of Lowered, Decreased Risks from Plant-based (Vegan, Vegetarian) Diets.

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A 2009 report in Diabetes Care – a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Diabetes Association – regards 22,434 men and 38,469 women found
– “Prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased from 2.9% in vegans to 7.6% in nonvegetarians [ie. omnivores, meat eaters]; the prevalence was intermediate in participants consuming lacto-ovo (3.2%), pesco (4.8%), or semi-vegetarian (6.1%) diets…”
The odds ratios (OR) of having type 2 diabetes were:
– 0.51 for vegans
– 0.54 for lacto-ovo vegetarians
– 0.70 for pesco-vegetarians
– 0.76 for semi-vegetarians
who all “had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians… After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, education, income, physical activity, television watching, sleep habits, alcohol use, and BMI…”
Similary “Mean BMI [body mass index] was lowest in vegans (23.6 kg/m(2)) and incrementally higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians (25.7 kg/m(2)), pesco-vegetarians (26.3 kg/m(2)), semi-vegetarians (27.3 kg/m(2)), and nonvegetarians (28.8 kg/m(2)).”
Their conclusion: “The 5-unit BMI difference between vegans and nonvegetarians indicates a substantial potential of vegetarianism to protect against obesity. Increased conformity to vegetarian diets protected against risk of type 2 diabetes after lifestyle characteristics and BMI were taken into account. Pesco- and semi-vegetarian diets afforded intermediate protection.”
Reference: “Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes”, Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):791-6; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351712

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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Plant-Based Diets for Diabetes” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRTKfRXwBTg Summary: “A plant-based diet beat out the conventional American Diabetes Association diet in a head-to-head randomized controlled clinical trial, without restricting portions, no calorie or carb counting. A review of all such studies found that individuals following plant-based diets experience improved reductions in blood sugars, body weight, and cardiovascular risk, compared with those following diets that included animal products.
And, cardiovascular risk is what kills diabetics. More likely to get strokes, more likely heart failure…” The full text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/plant-based-diets-for-diabetes/

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A study published during 2013 in the journal Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases concluded: “Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence.”
The study’s “participants were 15,200 men and 26,187 women”.
Results include: “Cases of diabetes developed in 0.54% of vegans, 1.08% of lacto ovo vegetarians, 1.29% of pesco vegetarians, 0.92% of semi-vegetarians and 2.12% of non-vegetarians. Blacks had an increased risk compared to non-Blacks
In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking and BMI, vegans [odds ratio 0.381]… lacto ovo vegetarians [odds ratio 0.618]… and semi-vegetarians [odds ratio 0.486]… had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians…”
Reference: “Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2”, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Apr;23(4):292-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983060

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A 2012 article in Harvard Magazine is titled “A Diabetes Link to Meat“. An excerpt: “RED-MEAT consumption is already linked to higher levels of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke). Now researchers from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have added an increased risk of type 2 (adult onset) diabetes to that list…
The HSPH investigators… analyzed data from three longitudinal studies of male and female healthcare professionals who were followed for 14 to 28 years. After adjusting for other risk factors, the researchers found that a daily serving of red meat no larger than a deck of cards increased the risk of adult-onset diabetes by 19 percent. Processed red meat proved much worse: a daily serving half that size—one hot dog, or two slices of bacon, for example—was associated with a 51 percent increase in risk. (The average 10-year risk of getting diabetes for U.S. adults is around 10 percent.)…
The findings of the group… agree with the advice presented in a “Healthy Eating Plate” (HSPH’s answer to the U.S. government’s MyPlate dietary guidance), on which meat and dairy products are not even represented visually. The Healthy Eating Plate emphasizes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and healthy proteins… recommends avoiding processed meats entirely; and shows a glass of water, rather than a glass of milk, beside the plate…”
Reference: http://www.harvardmagazine.com/2012/01/a-diabetes-link-to-meat

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Dr Greger clip titled “Diabetes Reversal: Is it the Calories or the Food?” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRrE3FW7wZk
Summary: “Even when study subjects were required to eat so much that they didn’t lose any weight, a plant-based diet could still reverse type 2 diabetes in a matter of weeks.
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/diabetes-reversal-is-it-the-calories-or-the-food/

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A 2017 report in a publication of the American Diabetes Association states: “Epidemiological studies have found a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes among vegetarians compared to nonvegetarians. This reduced risk is likely a function of improved weight status, higher intake of dietary fiber, and the absence of animal protein and heme iron in the diet. Interventional studies have shown that vegetarian diets, especially a vegan diet, are effective tools in glycemic control and that these diets control plasma glucose to a greater level than do control diets, including diets traditionally recommended for patients with diabetes (e.g., diets based on carbohydrate counting). Vegetarian diets are associated with improvement in secondary outcomes such as weight reduction, serum lipid profile, and blood pressure. Studies indicate that vegetarian diets can be universally used in type 2 diabetes prevention and as tools to improve blood glucose management.”
Reference: “Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications”, Diabetes Spectrum, 2017 May;30(2):82-88; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28588373

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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Why is Meat a Risk Factor for Diabetes?” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6t4tBmbPko8 – Excerpts: “A 2013 meta-analysis of all the cohorts looking at meat and diabetes found significantly higher risk associated with total meat consumption, and especially processed meat—particularly poultry [chicken products]… Since the 2013 meta-analysis was published, this study came out, in which about 17,000 people were followed for about a dozen years. They found an 8% increase in risk for every 50 grams of daily meat consumption. So, that’s just like a quarter of a chicken breast’s worth of meat for the entire day may significantly increase the risk of diabetes… Potential culprits include the trans fat in meat, the saturated fat, cholesterol, heme iron, advanced glycation end products (glycotoxins), animal protein (especially leucine), zoonotic viruses, and industrial pollutants that accumulate up the food chain…”
The full text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/why-is-meat-a-risk-factor-for-diabetes/

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Regards type 2 diabetes (T2D) a study of 40475 people found that “high animal protein and fat was associated with an increased risk of T2D…” of 37%; hazard ratio (HR) of 1.37 for “top compared with bottom quintile”.
In contrast a “high score for vegetable protein and fat was not significantly associated with the risk of T2D overall but was inversely associated with T2D in men aged <65 y.” The risk was reduced by 22%; an HR of 0.78.
The conclusion states: “A score representing a low-carbohydrate diet high in animal protein and fat was positively associated with the risk of T2D in men. Low-carbohydrate diets should obtain protein and fat from foods other than red and processed meat.”
Reference: “Low-carbohydrate diet scores and risk of type 2 diabetes in men”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 Apr;93(4):844-50; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310828

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A 2016 report in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition concludes: “since high iron stores are also a risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that not only vegetarians but also non-vegetarians should regularly control their iron status and improve their diet regarding the content and bioavailability of iron by consuming more plants and less meat.”
Reference: “The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis”, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2016 Nov 23:1-16; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27880062

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A 2010 report in Circulation, a medical science journal, regards a meta-analysis of “20 studies” covering “1,218,380 individuals” concluded: “Consumption of processed meats… is associated with higher incidence of CHD [coronary heart disease] and diabetes mellitus…” More specifically it found “processed meat intake was associated with 42% higher risk of CHD (n=5; relative risk per 50-g serving per day=1.42…) and 19% higher risk of diabetes mellitus…”
Reference: “Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, Circulation, 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2271-83; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479151

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Dr Greger: “How May Plants Protect Against Diabetes? Protective properties of whole plant foods against diabetes include antioxidants, lipotropes, fiber, and the ability to suppress the estrogen-producing bacteria in our gut.”
Clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgOEB59Ido8
Text: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/how-may-plants-protect-against-diabetes/

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Regards type 2 diabetes (T2D) a study of more than 200,000 people concludes: “Our study suggests that plant-based diets, especially when rich in high-quality plant foods, are associated with substantially lower risk of developing T2D. This supports current recommendations to shift to diets rich in healthy plant foods, with lower intake of less healthy plant and animal foods.”
Reference: “Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from Three Prospective Cohort Studies”, PLoS Medicine, 2016 Jun 14;13(6); https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299701

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Nutrients journal reported in 2017: “This meta-analysis indicates that a vegetarian diet is inversely associated with diabetes risk.” Specifically: “The pooled odds ratio (OR) for diabetes in vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians was 0.726…”
That means the vegetarians had around 27% lower rates of diabetes than the non-vegetarians.
Reference: “Adherence to a Vegetarian Diet and Diabetes Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies,” Nutrients, 2017 Jun 14;9(6). pii: E603; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28613258

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Dr Michael Greger MD clip “Fish and Diabetes” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I60O474F_GI
Excerpts: “The relationship between fish consumption and diabetes risk may be due to toxic pollutants that build up in the aquatic food chain… In the past two years, six separate meta-analyses have been published on the relationship between fish consumption and type 2 diabetes. The whole point of a meta-analysis, though, is to compile together the best studies done to date, and see what the overall balance of evidence shows. The fact that there are six different ones published recently highlights how open the question remains. One thread of consistency, though, was that fish consumers in the United States tended to be at greater risk for diabetes.
If you include Europe too, then fish-eaters appeared to have a 38% increased risk of diabetes. On a per-serving basis, that comes out to be about a 5% increase in risk for every serving of fish one has per week. To put that into perspective, a serving of red meat is associated with a 19% increase in risk—but, that’s per day. Just one serving a week of fish is 5%, so a serving a day would be like a 35% increase in risk—worse than red meat, but why?…”
The full text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/fish-and-diabetes/

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Regards the very high risks of Type 2 Diabetes for African Americans the journal of the American Diabetes Association states “the report noted that African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans experience a 50–100% higher burden of illness and mortality from diabetes than white Americans… 4.9 million African-American adults, or 18.7% of all African Americans ≥ 20 years of age, have diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, compared to 7.1% of non-Hispanic white Americans. The risk of diabetes is 77% higher among African Americans than among non-Hispanic white Americans…”
Source: “The Disparate Impact of Diabetes on Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations” at  http://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/3/130

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Dr Greger clip “Meat Consumption & the Development of Type 1 Diabetes” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GymmXdCDAxE
Summary: “Eating meat during breastfeeding is associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes, a consequence perhaps of meat glycotoxins or paratuberculosis bacteria that may be passed through breast milk… If you analyze the diet of what people who actually got the disease ate, increased risk of type 1 diabetes has been associated with milk, sugar, bread, soda, egg, and meat intake… [h]igh meat consumption seems to be an important early in life cofactor for type 1 diabetes development… The latest such study, following thousands of “mother-child pairs,” found that eating meat during breastfeeding was associated with an increased risk of both preclinical and full-blown type 1 diabetes by the time their child reached age 8…”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/meat-consumption-and-the-development-of-type-1-diabetes/

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A 2009 report in Nutrition Reviews states: “Vegetarian and vegan diets offer significant benefits for diabetes management. In observational studies, individuals following vegetarian diets are about half as likely to develop diabetes, compared with non-vegetarians. In clinical trials in individuals with type 2 diabetes, low-fat vegan diets improve glycemic control to a greater extent than conventional diabetes diets. Although this effect is primarily attributable to greater weight loss, evidence also suggests that reduced intake of saturated fats and high-glycemic-index foods, increased intake of dietary fiber and vegetable protein, reduced intramyocellular lipid concentrations, and decreased iron stores mediate the influence of plant-based diets on glycemia. Vegetarian and vegan diets also improve plasma lipid concentrations and have been shown to reverse atherosclerosis progression. In clinical studies, the reported acceptability of vegetarian and vegan diets is comparable to other therapeutic regimens. The presently available literature indicates that vegetarian and vegan diets present potential advantages for the management of type 2 diabetes.”
Reference: “Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes management”, Nutr Rev. 2009 May;67(5):255-63; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19386029

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Dr Neal Barnard MD “Tackling diabetes with a bold new dietary approach” is on youtube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktQzM2IA-qUCurrently – intro notes: “100 million Americans are pre-diabetic or diabetic, and 1 in 3 kids born after the year 2000 will develop diabetes. Neal Barnard… identifies the causes of this serious issue and advises us how we can fight these statistics.”

Other clips on “Dr Neal Barnard Diabetes” can be found via https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=Dr+Neal+Barnard+Diabetes

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2018 Dr Greger article “Plant-Based Diets Put to the Test for Diabetes” – excerpt: “A plant-based diet beat out the conventional American Diabetes Association diet in a head-to-head, randomized, controlled clinical trial, without restricting portions and without calorie- or carb-counting. A review of all such studies found that those following plant-based diets experience improved reductions in blood sugars, body weight, and cardiovascular risk, compared with those on diets including animal products.
Cardiovascular risk is what kills diabetics the most. They’re more likely to get strokes, more likely to suffer heart failure. In fact, “[d]iabetes has been proposed as a coronary heart disease risk equivalent, which means diabetic patients without a history of coronary disease have an equivalent risk to that of nondiabetic individuals with confirmed heart disease.
A newer study used a technique to actually measure insulin sensitivity. It improved on both diets in the first three months, but then the vegetarian diet pulled ahead. The researchers also found that the LDL cholesterol fell significantly in the vegetarian group. Indeed, that’s what we see when people are put on plant-based diets: Cholesterol comes down so much it can actually reverse the atherosclerosis progression—that is, reverse the progression of heart disease…”
Source: https://nutritionfacts.org/2018/04/12/plant-based-diets-put-to-the-test-for-diabetes/

The study he refers to:

From the 2006 report in the journal Diabetes Care: “CONCLUSIONS: Both a low-fat vegan diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat vegan diet.”
“RESULTS: Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications…
Including all participants, HbA(1c) (A1C) decreased 0.96 percentage points in the vegan group and 0.56 points in the ADA group (P = 0.089). Excluding those who changed medications, A1C fell 1.23 points in the vegan group compared with 0.38 points in the ADA group (P = 0.01).
Body weight decreased 6.5 kg in the vegan group and 3.1 kg in the ADA group (P < 0.001). Body weight change correlated with A1C change (r = 0.51, n = 57, P < 0.0001).
Among those who did not change lipid-lowering medications, LDL cholesterol fell 21.2% in the vegan group and 10.7% in the ADA group (P = 0.02).
After adjustment for baseline values, urinary albumin reductions were greater in the vegan group (15.9 mg/24 h) than in the ADA group (10.9 mg/24 h) (P = 0.013).”
Reference: “A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes”, Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873779

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A short clip by Dr Michael Greger MD “What Causes Diabetes?” is at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nujyif7MkMA
Summary: “Saturated fat can be toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, explaining why animal fat consumption can impair insulin secretion, not just insulin sensitivity… just like smoking can be said to cause lung cancer, high-calorie diets rich in saturated fats are currently considered the cause of type 2 diabetes… The fats, found predominantly in meat and dairychicken and cheese are the two main sources in the American diet—are almost universally toxic, whereas the fats found in olives, nuts, and avocados are not…” Text transcript at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/what-causes-diabetes/

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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Does Bovine Insulin in Milk Trigger Type 1 Diabetes?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDQYxdJbIio
Summary: “Is it the casein or the cow insulin that explains the link between milk consumption and the development of type I diabetes?”
Text at: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-bovine-insulin-in-milk-trigger-type-1-diabetes/

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A 2010 report in the journal Current Diabetes Reports: “Significant benefits for diabetes prevention and management have been observed with vegetarian and especially vegan diets. This article reviews observational studies and intervention trials on such diets, and discusses their efficacy, nutritional adequacy, acceptability, and sustainability. Research to date has demonstrated that a low-fat, plant-based nutritional approach improves control of weight, glycemia, and cardiovascular risk. These studies have also shown that carefully planned vegan diets can be more nutritious than diets based on more conventional diet guidelines, with an acceptability that is comparable with that of other therapeutic regimens. Current intervention guidelines from professional organizations offer support for this approach. Vegetarian and vegan diets present potential advantages in managing type 2 diabetes that merit the attention of individuals with diabetes and their caregivers.”
Reference: “Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes”, Curr Diab Rep. 2010 Apr;10(2):152-8. doi: 10.1007/s11892-010-0093-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20425575

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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Does Paratuberculosis in Milk Trigger Type 1 Diabetes?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Mf7KtDquyM
Summary: “Fear of consumer reaction” led the U.S. dairy industry to suppress the discovery in retail milk of live paraTB bacteria, a pathogen linked to type 1 diabetes.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-paratuberculosis-in-milk-trigger-type-1-diabetes/

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A study published during 2013 in the journal Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases concluded: “Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence.
The study’s “participants were 15,200 men and 26,187 women”.
Results include: “Cases of diabetes developed in 0.54% of vegans, 1.08% of lacto ovo vegetarians, 1.29% of pesco vegetarians, 0.92% of semi-vegetarians and 2.12% of non-vegetarians. Blacks had an increased risk compared to non-Blacks
In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking and BMI, vegans [odds ratio 0.381]… lacto ovo vegetarians [odds ratio 0.618]… and semi-vegetarians [odds ratio 0.486]… had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians…”
Reference: “Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2”, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Apr;23(4):292-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983060

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From a report in Reader’s Digest:A massive study suggests that chowing down on just one serving of meat a day could lead to diabetes down the road… The study tracked 45,411 ethnic Chinese people aged between 45 and 74 years from 1999 to 2010… Data reported that just one palm-sized serving of meat increased the risk of diabetes by 23 percent for red meat and 15 percent for the dark meat found in poultry
Research of Western populations have reached similar conclusions; a 2011 Harvard study found that a daily serving of red meat increased the risk of adulthood diabetes by 19 percent.
It’s likely that dietary haem iron found in red or dark meat causes the health hazard, according to Koh Woon Puay, lead author of the study and professor at the Duke-NUS Medical School. Although the body quickly absorbs haem iron, excessive levels of the nutrient can damage tissues, including those that produce insulin in the pancreas—which could lead to diabetes.
Meat, poultry, seafood and fish contain high levels of haem iron. Thankfully, you can still get your daily dose of iron via the non-haem version, which is found in… plant-based foods like dark green vegetables, nuts, and seeds…”
Reference: “If You Eat This One Food Every Day, You Could Increase Your Risk of Diabetes” at https://www.rd.com/health/conditions/meat-increased-risk-of-diabetes/

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This site features a page about the health risks of consuming eggs including numerous science reports on the higher rates of type 2 diabetes associated with moderate consumption of eggs.

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Top 3 Diabetes Myths, Busted: Fruit, Starchy Vegetables, and Blood Glucose” by Cyrus Khambatta, PhD in nutritional biochemistry… “Through nutrition education, exercise coaching, and his personal experience as a person with type 1 diabetes, he positively influences the lives of people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes around the world.”
Excerpts: “more than 85 years of scientific research clearly demonstrates that a low-fat, plant-based whole foods diet is the single most effective dietary approach for managing type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This means that a low-fat diet—not a low-carb diet—has been shown across the board to minimize oral medication and insulin use, stabilize blood glucose, and dramatically reduce long-term disease risk in people with diabetes…”
Article at https://www.forksoverknives.com/top-3-diabetes-myths-busted-fruit-starchy-vegetables-blood-glucose/

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Regards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) a 2017 report in Nutrients journal states: “This meta-analysis shows that total protein and animal protein could increase the risk of T2DM in both males and females, and plant protein decreases the risk of T2DM in females. The association between high-protein food types and T2DM are also different. Red meat and processed meat are risk factors of T2DM, and soy, dairy and dairy products are the protective factors of T2DM. Egg and fish intake are not associated with a decreased risk of T2DM. ”
Reference: “Dietary Protein Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies”, Nutrients, 2017 Sep; 9(9): 982;
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622742/

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A 2014 article in the journal named Nutrients is titled “Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes”.

Excerpts: “In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic…

The Adventist Mortality Study included a baseline survey of 24,673 white Seventh-day Adventists living in California in 1960, revealing 40% and 80% higher prevalences of diabetes among meat-consuming women and men, respectively, compared with vegetarians… Diabetes prevalence increased as the frequency of meat consumption increased… Compared with those who avoided meat, the relative risk of having diabetes on a death certificate, adjusted for age, was 2.2 for meat-consuming men and 1.4 for meat-consuming women

In a 17-year follow-up of 8401 individuals… who were free of diabetes at baseline, those who reported eating meat (defined as red meat, poultry, and fish) at least weekly at the study’s endpoint were 29% more likely to have developed diabetes, compared to those who reported no meat consumption at that time point…

The Adventist Health Study-2 included 60,903 Adventists… the odds ratio of a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes among meat consumers remained approximately twice that of individuals avoiding meat. Those who consumed meat less than once per week or who limited their meat consumption to fish also remained at elevated risk, albeit not so high as for those consuming all types of meat on a daily basis.

A 2-year follow-up period included 41,387 men and women. Compared with those eating meat more than once per week… risk of developing diabetes was significantly lower in vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and those consuming red meat or poultry less than once per week…

A 2011 meta-analysis… including 442,101 participants and 28,228 diabetes cases, showed that consumption of both unprocessed and processed red meat… was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes…

In population studies that include a sufficient number people who avoid all meats such that comparisons can be made between these people and those who eat red meat, fish, etc., those who avoid all meats have the lowest risks of diabetes…

In the Nurses’ Health Study I, two major dietary patterns were identified among the 69,554 participants: a “Western” dietary pattern, defined by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and desserts, french fries, and refined grains, and a “prudent” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains. After adjustment for age, family history of diabetes, calories, physical activity, body mass index, and other factors, those in the highest quintile of the Western pattern had a 49% increased risk of developing diabetes during 14 years of follow-up, compared with those in the lowest quintile.

After adjustment for the Western dietary score, the associations between meat intake and diabetes risk remained significant; the relative risk for each added daily meat serving was 1.26 for red meat and 1.38 for processed meat, suggesting, in the study authors’ words, “that these foods are associated with diabetes risk independently of the overall Western pattern”.

In the Nurses’ Health Study II, including 91,246 women followed for eight years, consumption of processed meat five or more times per week was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes… For red meat consumption 5 or more times per week, compared with <1 time per week… the relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.59… These studies indicate that, while a Western dietary pattern is associated with diabetes risk, meat consumption increases diabetes risk independently of dietary pattern.

A separate analysis examined fish consumption among 195,204 adults… Those who consumed 5 or more fish servings per week had a 22% increased risk for developing diabetes during the 14- to 18-year follow-up period, compared with those who consumed fish less than once per month…

An additional and methodologically distinct study examined diets of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study and the Multiethnic Cohort Study, finding that consumption of fish and meat was higher in individuals with diabetes, compared with those without diabetes…

Conclusions: Meat consumption is consistently associated with diabetes risk. Dietary habits are readily modifiable, but individuals and clinicians will consider dietary changes only if they are aware of the potential benefits of doing so…”

Reference: “Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes”,
Nutrients, 2014, 6(2), 897-910; doi:10.3390/nu6020897; http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/2/897/htm

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A 2016 study in the PLoS Med journal states: “CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that plant-based diets, especially when rich in high-quality plant foods, are associated with substantially lower risk of developing T2D. This supports current recommendations to shift to diets rich in healthy plant foods, with lower intake of less healthy plant and animal foods.”
Further information about the study:
“BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets have been recommended to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial
We included 69,949 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984-2012), 90,239 women from the Nurses’ Health Study 2 (1991-2011), and 40,539 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), free of chronic diseases at baseline…
Using these data, we created an overall plant-based diet index (PDI), where plant foods received positive scores, while animal foods (animal fats, dairy, eggs, fish/seafood, poultry/red meat, miscellaneous animal-based foods) received reverse scores. We also created a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), where healthy plant foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, tea/coffee) received positive scores, while less healthy plant foods (fruit juices, sweetened beverages, refined grains, potatoes, sweets/desserts) and animal foods received reverse scores. Lastly, we created an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI) by assigning positive scores to less healthy plant foods and reverse scores to healthy plant foods and animal foods…
We documented 16,162 incident T2D cases during 4,102,369 person-years of follow-up. In pooled multivariable-adjusted analysis, both PDI and hPDI were inversely associated with T2D (PDI: hazard ratio [HR] for extreme deciles 0.51, 95% CI 0.47-0.55, p trend < 0.001; hPDI: HR for extreme deciles 0.55, 95% CI 0.51-0.59, p trend < 0.001). The association of T2D with PDI was considerably attenuated when we additionally adjusted for body mass index (BMI) categories (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, p trend < 0.001), while that with hPDI remained largely unchanged (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.61-0.72, p trend < 0.001). uPDI was positively associated with T2D even after BMI adjustment (HR for extreme deciles 1.16, 95% CI 1.08-1.25, p trend < 0.001)…”
Reference: “Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from Three Prospective Cohort Studies”, PLoS Med. 2016 Jun 14;13(6):e1002039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002039. eCollection 2016 Jun; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299701

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A 2017 article in the journal Nutrients reports, regards “patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)… HC [high carbohydrate] diets are at least as effective as LC [low carbohydrate] diets, leading to significant weight loss and a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels… Carbohydrate intake should be individualized, and low caloric intake remains a crucial factor to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce body weight; however, an HC diet, rich in fiber and with a low GI/GL, may be recommendable in patients with T2DM.”
Reference: “Impact of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes”, Nutrients, 2017 Mar 24;9(4); at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28338608

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From a 2017 report in The Journal of Nutrition: “Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk… We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss…
Conclusions: Diets that are high in carbohydrate and low to moderate in fat tend to be lower in energy. The lowest energy intakes were observed for those on a vegetarian diet. The diet quality as measured by HEI [Healthy Eating Index] was highest for the high carbohydrate groups and lowest for the low carbohydrate groups. The BMIs were significantly lower for men and women on the high carbohydrate diet; the highest BMIs were noted for those on a low carbohydrate diet.
Reference: “A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes”, J Nutr. 2017 Nov;147(11):2060-2066; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28954840

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The conclusion of a 2014 report in PLoS One science journal states: “We found a strong protective association between Taiwanese vegetarian diet and diabetes/IFG, after controlling for various potential confounders and risk factors.”
Specifically: “The crude prevalence of diabetes in vegetarians versus omnivores is 0.6% versus 2.3% in pre-menopausal women, 2.8% versus 10% in menopausal women, and 4.3% versus 8.1% in men…”
Reference: “Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores: dietary composition, prevalence of diabetes and IFG”, PLoS One. 2014 Feb 11;9(2); https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523914

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A 2017 article in the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology is titled “A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.”

The Abstract states: “The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Evidence from observational and interventional studies demonstrates the benefits of plant-based diets in treating type 2 diabetes and reducing key diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications. Optimal macronutrient ratios for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes are controversial; the focus should instead be on eating patterns and actual foods. However, the evidence does suggest that the type and source of carbohydrate (unrefined versus refined), fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated versus saturated and trans), and protein (plant versus animal) play a major role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Multiple potential mechanisms underlie the benefits of a plant-based diet in ameliorating insulin resistance, including promotion of a healthy body weight, increases in fiber and phytonutrients, food-microbiome interactions, and decreases in saturated fat, advanced glycation endproducts, nitrosamines, and heme iron.”

From the Introduction section: “Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, with approximately 422 million cases worldwide and a rapidly rising prevalence in middle- and low-income countries. In the United States in 2011–2012, 12%–14% of adults had type 2 diabetes and 38% had prediabetes. Prediabetes is even more common among those aged ≥ 65 in the United States, with a prevalence of 50%. Diabetes accounts for $176 billion of direct medical costs in the US, including annual per capita costs of $7900, a number 2.3 times higher than costs for adults without diabetes. In 2015, type 2 diabetes was the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes in older patients is associated with an increased risk of mortality, reduced functional status, and increased risk of institutionalization…”

In the section titled “Plant-based diets for the prevention of type 2 diabetes”:
“The Adventist Health Study 2 examined disease prevalence by different eating patterns in an overall health-conscious cohort. Among nearly 61,000 individuals, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes decreased in a stepwise fashion with each reduction in animal products in the diet: from 7.6% in non-vegetarians, 6.1% in semi-vegetarians, 4.8% in pesco-vegetarians, 3.2% in lacto-ovo vegetarians, to 2.9% in vegans. The apparent protection of the vegan dietary pattern remained after adjustment for body mass index and other variables, with vegans having half the rate of type 2 diabetes compared with non-vegetarians…

In another study of 8401 members of the Adventist Mortality Study and Adventist Health Study, long-term (17-year) adherence to a diet that included at least weekly meat intake was associated with a 74% increase… in odds of developing diabetes compared with long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet (zero meat intake)

In a cohort of 4384 Taiwanese Buddhists, vegetarian men had approximately half of the rate of diabetes… and vegetarian post-menopausal women had one-quarter the rate of diabetes… compared with their omnivorous counterparts, despite statistical adjustment for body mass index and other factors. Interestingly, the omnivores in this study consumed a predominantly plant-based diet with little meat or fish, again implying that small amounts of meat contribute significantly to the development of insulin resistance

In the largest prospective study of plant-based eating patterns to date… Analysis of data from 4.1 million person-years of follow up revealed that those most adherent to the healthful plant-based dietary index had a 34% lower risk of developing diabetes compared with those least adherent. These associations were independent of body mass index and other diabetes risk factors…

In the “Conclusions” section: “There is a general consensus that the elements of a whole-foods plant-based diet—legumes, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, with limited or no intake of refined foods and animal products—are highly beneficial for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes. Equally important, plant-based diets address the bigger picture for patients with diabetes by simultaneously treating cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States, and its risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, hyper-lipidemia, and inflammation. The advantages of a plant-based diet also extend to reduction in risk of cancer, the second leading cause of death in the United States; the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research recommend eating mostly foods of plant origin, avoiding all processed meats and sugary drinks, and limiting intake of red meats, energy dense foods, salt, and alcohol for cancer prevention…
Plant-based eating patterns also carry significant environmental benefits. The World Health Organization and the United Nations have promoted diets higher in plant foods as not only effective for preventing chronic diseases and obesity, but also more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products, a position also supported in the scientific report of the 2015 United States Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee… the case for using a plant-based diet to reduce the burden of diabetes and improve overall health has never been stronger.”

Reference: “A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes”, J Geriatr Cardiol., 2017 May; 14(5): 342–354; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466941/

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This site contains pages with hundreds of science reports on the higher rates of disease & death associated with eating red meat, dairy, chicken/poultry, eggs, fish/seafood & of the lower rates associated with eating healthy plant-based diets high in fruits & vegetables & nuts.

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“Simple Care for Diabetes” by Dr John McDougall, an excerpt: “Drug therapy has consistently failed patients with type-2 diabetes, and their well-intended doctors, making the search for an alternative treatment imperative. Since the rich Western diet is agreed to be the cause of this epidemic, should diet not be the first place to look for the prevention and the cure?
Written reports on the benefits of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate, plant-food-based diet on type-2 diabetes date back to at least 1930. Several published studies demonstrate how type-2 diabetics can stop insulin and get off diabetic oral medications with a change in diet. One goalpost is weight loss to the point of normal body weight, at this time the blood sugars of most patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes will normal, and then everyone will agree that no further treatment with medications is needed.
By great good fortune, this same low-fat, no-cholesterol diet successfully used for diet-therapy for diabetes has been shown to prevent and treat heart and kidney disease, and prevent many common forms of cancer. Heart disease accounts for 70% of the deaths in diabetics, diabetes is the number one cause of kidney failure, and cancer is more common in diabetics.
When caring for a person with diabetes, attention should be paid to other risk factors, such as cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. In most cases these numbers will also improve by following a starch-based diet and exercising, and the associated weight loss. But there will remain a few people who will benefit from treatment of their blood pressure and blood cholesterol with medication. Just like a few people with type-2 diabetes (with partial insulin deficiency) will need insulin…”
Article at https://www.drmcdougall.com/misc/2009nl/dec/diabetes.htm

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Regards Fatty Acids and Type 2 Diabetes:

From a 2018 report in the British Medical Journal: “diets rich in marine omega 3 fatty acids have not been shown in humans to reduce insulin resistance or the incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, biomarker studies point to an inverse association between blood omega 3 fatty acids (alpha linolenic acid) derived from plants and type 2 diabetes.” [41, 43]
Reference: “Dietary fat and cardiometabolic health: evidence, controversies, and consensus for guidance”, BMJ 2018; 361; https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k2139

Reference 41: “CONCLUSIONS: These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA) is inversely associated with T2D. The detection of associations with previously less well-investigated PUFAs points to the importance of considering individual fatty acids rather than focusing on fatty acid class.”
Source: “Association of plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study. PLoS Med 2016;13:e1002094; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27434045

Reference 43: “The overall pooled findings do not support either major harms or benefits of fish/seafood or EPA+DHA on development of DM, and suggest that ALA may be associated with modestly lower risk.”
Source: “Omega-3 fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis” British Journal of Nutrition 2012;107(Suppl 2):S214-27; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591895

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Just Some of the Other Science Journal Reports to sort & file:

“Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922183

“Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414824

“Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27253526

“A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630614

“A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29425120

“New study shows vegan diet improves diabetes markers in overweight adults – A plant-based diet improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in overweight adults with no history of diabetes, according to a new study published in Nutrients by researchers from the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine…” – https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-02-vegan-diet-diabetes-markers-overweight.html

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MORE TO COME!!!

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Click the link to go to this site’s page of science reports on the Higher Risks & Rates of Disease associated with Eating Eggs, including Diabetes.

Debunk Facts Statistics Science Scientific Reports Studies Type II 2 Diabetes Mellitus DM CVD Eating Consuming Chicken Eggs Egg Consumption Not Good Bad Cause Increase More Heart Disease Illness Health Rates Risks Benefits UnHealthy HealthyClick the image to open a larger easier-to-read version

 

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This set of articles were compiled for
www.EatingOurFuture.com

Pages on this Site:

Eating Meat & Dairy Increases Climate Change, Pollution & Damage to Our Environment

Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.

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Eating Meat linked to Higher Rates & Risk of Cancer, Diabetes, Heart Disease & Early Death

Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.

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Scientific Studies on Health Advantages of Vegans & Vegetarians

Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.

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Mass Extinction Loss of Biodiversity caused by Humans

Excerpts & links to articles in news media  science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.

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Dairy Milk Health Problems – Issues & Risks for Related Disease & Illness

This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.

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Risk of Infectious Disease Epidemics from Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria due to Animal Agriculture

This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.

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How the Meat & Dairy Industry Influences Politics, Government, Education, News & Media

This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.

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Eating Seafood & Overfishing is Destroying Oceans, Rivers & Wildlife

Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.

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Studies Find Eating Fish Seafood Not So Healthy With Raised Risks of Disease

Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.

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Are Soy Foods Healthy or Not? Doctors & Nutrition Experts Refute Some Myths

A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”

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How We Are Eating Our Future

This site’s original 2012 page with excerpts from articles in science journals and news media about how what we choose to eat can: i) accelerate or slow down climate change and the related environmental catastrophes we face; and ii) increase or reduce our risks for chronic illness and disease. The evidence and body of opinion against the animal agriculture livestock industry is particularly compelling and damning.

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