Page Summary: Clips, quotes & links to 100+ Science News Reports on the Association of Dairy Consumption with Higher Rates of Disease, including Cancer (of prostate, breast, testicles, ovaries, colorectal, gastric & NH lymphoma), Osteoporosis (bone fractures), Cardiovascular Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Diabetes & Mortality.
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Page Menu – to jump to sections below regards dairy consumption and higher rates of:
+ Mortality: Drinking Milk is Associated with an Increased Death Rate.
+ General Health: No Requirement for Milk Consumption.
+ Dairy & Higher Rates of Cancer / Reports specifically on – Men: Prostate & Testicular Cancer / Women: Hormones in Dairy & Female Cancers & more specifically Ovarian Cancer & Breast Cancer / Lymphoma / Gastric Intestinal Cancer / Carcinogenic Viruses in Dairy / Other reports on Hormones in Dairy & Cancer.
+ Osteoporosis: Higher Rates of Bone Fractures Associated with Dairy.
+ Parkinson’s Disease: Increased Rates Associated with Dairy.
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High Milk Intake Associated with Higher Rates of Death (Mortality) & Fractures:
From a 2014 British Medical Journal (BMJ) study titled: “Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies” – summary excerpts: “Objective: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men… Participants: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61,433 women… and one with 45,339 men… Conclusions: High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women…”
Reference: “Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies”, BMJ 2014; 349; http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015
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A 2014 news report: “Three glasses of milk a day can lead to early death, warn scientists. Drinking three glasses of milk doubles the risk of early death and does not prevent broken bones, new research has shown…
A study that tracked 61,000 women and 45,000 men for 20 years found there was no reduction in broken bones for those who consumed the most milk…”
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Dr Michael Greger MD clip “Is Milk Good for Our Bones?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxnBDDqXSjk
Summary: “The galactose in milk may explain why milk consumption is associated with significantly higher risk of hip fractures, cancer, and premature death.”
Text transcript at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-milk-good-for-our-bones/
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For more reports of scientific studies that found higher occurrences of bone fractures associated with consuming dairy click that link to go to the section further below.
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Dairy Milk is Not Necessary for Human Health:
In a journal of the American Medical Association, medical doctors Ludwig & Willett state: “Humans have no nutritional requirement for animal milk… many populations throughout the world today consume little or no milk… bone fracture rates tend to be lower in countries that do not consume milk compared with those that do. Moreover, milk consumption does not protect against fracture in adults, according to recent meta-analysis.”
In regards to scenarios where they would recommend dairy consumption, they state: “Nevertheless, milk provides significant amounts of protein and other essential nutrients and may confer health benefits for children and adults WITH POOR OVERALL DIET QUALITY. For those with high-quality diets (including green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and adequate protein), the nutritional benefits of high milk consumption MAY NOT OUTWEIGH THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES.” (emphasis added)
Regards “Milk Intake and Cancer” they state: “Dairy milk evolved to promote the growth of grazing animals at high risk for predation when small. The consequences of lifetime human exposure to the growth factors in milk have NOT been well studied. Milk consumption increases serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1, an anabolic hormone linked to prostate and other cancers.
In addition, modern industrial methods maintain dairy cows in active milk production throughout successive pregnancies, resulting in a milk supply with high levels of reproductive hormones. Consumption of dairy products probably increases the likelihood or severity of prostate cancer, according to a report from the World Cancer Research Fund in 2007 …”
Among the conservative conclusion statements: “for those with high diet quality, milk consumption may not improve health.”
Reference: “Three Daily Servings of Reduced-Fat Milk. An Evidence-Based Recommendation?” JAMA Pediatrics, 2013;167(9):788-789; at https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/1704826 and PDF at http://www.naturaleater.com/science-articles/136-Three-daily-servings-Milk-Really-Ludwig-JAMA-2013.pdf
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From a related 2014 article in the National Post: “Dr. Walter Willett comes from a long line of dairy farmers, yet he says people are drinking more milk than they need. The Harvard University expert on nutrition says it’s not essential that we have any dairy at all.
“Most of the world does not consume dairy products and (yet) they grow up and become faculty members at Harvard, too,” says Willett…
The Boston Globe has described Willett as “the world’s most influential nutritionist,” a quiet-spoken physician and academic…”
– Reference: http://news.nationalpost.com/appetizer/drinking-milk-not-essential-for-humans-despite-belief-it-prevents-osteoporosis-nutritionist-says
From a 2013 article in The Huffington Post titled “Harvard Milk Study: It Doesn’t Do A Body Good” an excerpt: “humans have no nutritional requirement for milk, and it may be doing us more harm than good because of all the sugar even plain non-fat milk contains, according to a new study by a Harvard professor…”
Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., is Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.
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Dairy Milk Consumption Association with Higher Rates of Cancer:
From an article titled “Do dairy products cause cancer?” by The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine: “Recent scientific studies have suggested that dairy products may be linked to increased risk for prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and possibly for ovarian and breast cancers.
Prostate cancer has been linked to dairy products in several studies. In Harvard’s Physicians Health Study, including more than 20,000 male physicians, those who consumed more than two dairy servings daily had a 34% higher risk of developing prostate cancer than men who consumed little or no dairy products. Several other studies have shown much the same thing…
A recent analysis of studies examining a relationship between dairy product consumption and ovarian cancer risk found that for every 10 grams of lactose consumed (the amount in one glass of milk), ovarian cancer risk increased by 13 percent…”
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Regards dairy consumption and cancer rates the British Journal of Cancer reports a study of 22788 people: “In this large cohort study, people with lactose intolerance, characterised by low consumption of milk and other dairy products, had decreased risks of lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, but the decreased risks were not found in their family members, suggesting that the protective effects against these cancers may be related to their specific dietary pattern.”
The specific standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were:
* lung SIR=0.55 meaning 45% less cancer.
* breast SIR=0.79 meaning 21% less cancer.
* ovarian SIR=0.61 meaning 49% less cancer.
Reference: “Lactose intolerance and risk of lung, breast and ovarian cancers: aetiological clues from a population-based study in Sweden”, British Journal of Cancer, volume 112, pages 149–152 (06 January 2015); https://www.nature.com/articles/bjc2014544
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Dairy Consumption & Higher Rates of Prostate & Testicular Cancer:
Regards dairy protein and prostate cancer the British Journal of Cancer reports on a study of 143,251 men: “A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22...”; a 22% higher rate of cancer.
Furthermore: “After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g day(-1) increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% … Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods.”
Reference: “Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.” Br J Cancer. 2008 May 6;98(9):1574-81; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18382426
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Regards prostate cancer and dairy, the American Journal of Epidemiology reports on a study of 8,894 men: “Daily milk consumption in adolescence (vs. less than daily) … was associated with a 3.2-fold risk of advanced prostate cancer … These data suggest that frequent milk intake in adolescence increases risk of advanced prostate cancer.”
Reference: “Milk Intake in Early Life and Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer”, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 175, No. 2, December 20, 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249408/pdf/kwr289.pdf
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In 2015 a meta-analysis of thirty-two studies “on intakes of dairy products and calcium and prostate cancer risk” was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Their findings include: “High intakes of dairy products, milk, low-fat milk, cheese, and total, dietary, and dairy calcium, but not supplemental or nondairy calcium, may increase total prostate cancer risk. The diverging results for types of dairy products and sources of calcium suggest that other components of dairy rather than fat and calcium may increase prostate cancer risk… Supplemental calcium was associated with increased risk of fatal prostate cancer…”
Other notes include: “Prostate cancer is the second most-common cancer in men worldwide with approximately 900,000 new cases diagnosed in 2008 accounting for 13.8% of all cancers in men. Ecologic studies have shown up to a 70-fold variation in the incidence of prostate cancer worldwide with low rates in parts of Asia and Africa and high rates in North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Northern Europe. Migration studies suggested increased risk in Asians who move to the United States, and secular trend studies have reported an increased incidence and mortality within countries over time. These observations suggest a possible influence of modifiable exposures, including diet, on prostate cancer risk…”
Reference: “Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies”, Am J Clin Nutr, January 2015, vol. 101 no. 1 87-117; at http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/101/1/87.full
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Dr Greger clip: “Prostate Cancer and Organic Milk vs. Almond Milk”
Excerpts: “This recent study… controlling for as many factors as possible by just isolating prostate cancer cells out of the body in a petri dish, and dripping cow milk on them directly. They chose organic cows’ milk because they wanted to exclude the effect of added hormones, and just test the effect of all the growth and sex hormones found naturally in all milk.
They found that “[c]ows’ milk stimulated the growth of [human] prostate cancer cells in each of 14 separate experiments, producing an average increase in [cancer] growth rate of over 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of these cancer cells by over 30%.”…
The latest meta-analysis of all the best case control studies ever done on the matter concludes that milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer. And the latest meta-analysis of all the best cohort studies ever done also concludes that milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer. An even newer study suggests that milk intake during adolescence may be particularly risky in terms of potentially setting one up for cancer later in life.”
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From the Nutrition and Cancer journal: “Prostate cancer has become the most common cancer among men in the United States… A meta-analysis method was conducted to estimate the combined odds ratio (OR) between milk consumption and prostate cancer from case-control studies published between 1984 and 2003… The combined OR was 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.34-2.12) in the 11 published case-control studies… In conclusion, we found a positive association [meaning higher rates of disease] between milk consumption and prostate cancer. The underlying mechanisms, including fat, calcium, hormones, and other factors, should be investigated further.
Reference: “Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies”, Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(1):22-7; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203374
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International Journal of Cancer 2002: “The incidence and mortality rates of testicular and prostatic cancers in 42 countries were correlated with the dietary practices in these countries… Among the food items we examined, cheese was most closely correlated with the incidence of testicular cancer at ages 20-39, followed by animal fats and milk…
Concerning prostatic cancer, milk (1961-90) was most closely correlated (r = 0.711) with its incidence, followed meat and coffee.
Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis identified milk + cheese as a factor contributing to the incidence of prostatic cancer (R = 0.525). The food that was most closely correlated with the mortality rate of prostatic cancer was milk (r = 0.766), followed by coffee, cheese and animal fats. Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis revealed that milk + cheese was a factor contributing to mortality from prostatic cancer …
The results of our study suggest a role of milk and dairy products in the development and growth of testicular and prostatic cancers…”
Reference: “Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices”, Int J Cancer. 2002 Mar 10;98(2):262-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11857417
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From the conclusion of a 2016 report on 778,929 individuals in Nutrition Journal: “whole milk intake in men contributed to elevated prostate cancer mortality risk significantly.”
Specific findings include increased relative risks (RR), for all cancer mortality, of:
– 1.23 for cheese, meaning cheese consumption was associated with a 23% higher occurrence of dying from cancer;
– 1.13 for butter, meaning butter consumption was associated with 13% more deaths from cancer, in men and women; and
– “the pooled RR was 1.50… for whole milk in male, which was limited to prostate cancer. Further dose-response analyses were performed and we found that increase of whole milk (serving/day) induced elevated prostate cancer mortality risk significantly, with the RR of 1.43″; denoting a 43% higher incidence.
Reference: “Dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies”, Nutr J, 2016 Oct 21;15(1):91; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27765039
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A 2001 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is titled “Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study.” It states: “We investigated the association between dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study, a cohort of male US physicians.”
From the results section: “Compared with men consuming < or =0.5 daily servings of dairy products, those consuming >2.5 servings had a multivariate relative risk of prostate cancer of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) … Compared with men consuming < or =150 mg Ca/d from dairy products, men consuming >600 mg/d had a 32% higher risk of prostate cancer (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63).
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that dairy products and calcium are associated with a greater risk of prostate cancer.”
Reference: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Am J Clin Nutr.) 2001 Oct;74(4):549-54. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11566656
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Dr Greger clip: “Hormones in Skim vs. Whole Milk” … & Cancer
Summary: “Genetic manipulation has resulted in cows lactating into the third trimester of pregnancy, leading to milk with abnormally high hormone levels.”
Excerpt: “Which has the highest hormone levels, though?… Here’s the study, and buttermilk had the most hormones… The number two most hormone-packed milk is skim milk.
Why are we concerned? Breast cancer, for one thing. All part of the soup of cancer-causing suspects scientists continue to find in milk…
Milk was designed by nature to make things grow like crazy—that’s why it’s good for babies, but bad for tumors. Good for baby cows, but bad for adult people who may have tiny microscopic breast or prostate tumors, which we don’t want growing so fast.
In a study of 140,000 men this year, 35 grams of dairy protein increased the risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer by 76%, so that’s like 2% increased risk for every gram of milk protein. So like a cup of cottage cheese a day could increase one’s risk by about 50%…”
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A 2005 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is titled “Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort.”
The authors state: “We examined the association of dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer.
DESIGN: In a prospective study of 3612 men followed from 1982-1984 to 1992 for the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 131 prostate cancer cases were identified…
RESULTS: Compared with men in the lowest tertile for dairy food intake, men in the highest tertile had a relative risk (RR) of 2.2 … Low-fat milk was associated with increased risk (RR = 1.5)… Dietary calcium was also strongly associated with increased risk (RR = 2.2)… After adjustment for calcium intake, neither vitamin D nor phosphorus was clearly associated with risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Dairy consumption may increase prostate cancer risk through a calcium-related pathway…”
Reference: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2005 May; 81(5):1147-54. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15883441
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A study reported in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2007) concludes “These findings, together with the previous study, suggest that the consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk of prostate cancer. This is biologically plausible since milk contains considerable amounts of fat, hormones, and calcium that are associated with prostate cancer risk.”
Further notes: “We found 18 relevant articles and 13 independent studies were available for our analysis. The summary RR was 1.13 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.24) when comparing the highest with the lowest quantile of consumption. The summary RRs by study stratification showed a positive association. A dose-response relationship was identified when combining the studies that partitioned the consumption by quintiles…”
Reference: “Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies”, Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007; 16(3):467-76; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17704029
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A 2006 report concluded: “Our results suggest that milk fat and/or galactose may explain the association between milk and dairy product consumption and seminomatous testicular cancer.”
Specific notes: “The RR [relative risk] of testicular cancer was 1.37… per additional 20 servings of milk per month (each 200 mL) in adolescence. This elevated overall risk was mainly due to an increased risk for seminoma (RR, 1.66…) per additional 20 milk servings per month. The RR for seminoma was 1.30… for each additional 200 g milk fat per month and was 2.01… for each additional 200 g galactose per month during adolescence.”
Reference: “Adolescent milk fat and galactose consumption and testicular germ cell cancer”, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Nov;15(11):2189-95; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119045
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From the Chinese National Journal of Andrology: “Among the food items examined, milk was most closely correlated (r = 0.711) with prostatic cancer incidence, followed by meat and coffee. As for testicular cancer, cheese was most closely correlated (r = 0.804) with the incidences in ages of 20-39, followed by animal fat and milk…”
The study was based on “The incidence rates of testicular and prostatic cancers in 42 countries (regions), collected from the cancer incidence in five continent database (1988-1992), were correlated with the relative food consumption in these countries, which was provided by FAO database…”
Reference: “The effects of estrogen-like products in milk on prostate and testes”, Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2003 Jun;9(3):186-90; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12861831
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Regards prostate cancer a study reported in The World Journal of Men’s Health concludes: “The milk protein, casein, promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells such as PC3 and LNCaP.” Specific results included: “PC3 cells treated with 1 mg/mL of α-casein and casein showed increased proliferation (228% and 166%, respectively), and the proliferation of LNCaP cells was also enhanced by 134% and 142%, respectively.”
Reference: “A Milk Protein, Casein, as a Proliferation Promoting Factor in Prostate Cancer Cells”, World J Mens Health. 2014 Aug; 32(2): 76–82; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166373/
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An article titled “Milk Consumption and Prostate Cancer” by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is at
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Dairy Consumption & Higher Rates of Cancer in Women:
A 2005 report in science journal Medical Hypotheses stated: “In conclusion, increased consumption of animal-derived food may have adverse effects on the development of hormone-dependent cancers.”
More specifically they stated: “The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers… with food intake… in 40 countries.
Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862).
Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767).
Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0.861)...
Among dietary risk factors, we are most concerned with milk and dairy products, because the milk we drink today is produced from pregnant cows, in which estrogen and progesterone levels are markedly elevated.”
Reference: “The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers”, Med Hypotheses, 2005;65(6):1028-37; at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987705003543 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16125328
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Consuming Dairy & Increased Rates of Ovarian Cancer:
Regards cancer of the ovaries the International Journal of Cancer reports: “40% greater risk for women in the highest category of lactose [dairy] consumption compared to the lowest… We observed a 2-fold higher risk of the serous ovarian cancer subtype among those in the highest category of lactose [dairy] consumption compared to the lowest… For each 11-gram increase in lactose consumption (the approximate amount in one glass of milk), we observed a 20% increase in risk of serous cancers… Skim and low-fat milk were the largest contributors to dietary lactose. Women who consumed one or more servings of skim or low-fat milk daily had a 32% higher risk of any ovarian cancer… and a 69% higher risk of serous ovarian cancer… compared to women consuming 3 or less servings monthly. Controlling for fat intake did not change our findings…”
Reference: “A prospective study of dietary lactose and ovarian cancer”, International Journal of Cancer, 2004 Jun 10;110(2):271-7; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15069693/
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A 2004 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition declares: “Our data indicate that high intakes of lactose and dairy products, particularly milk, are associated with an increased risk of serous ovarian cancer but not of other subtypes of ovarian cancer.”
Some notes about the study: “We examined the association between intakes of dairy products and lactose and the risk of total epithelial ovarian cancer and its subtypes…
This was a prospective population-based cohort study of 61,084 women aged 38-76 y… After adjustment for potential confounders, women who consumed >/=4 servings of total dairy products/d had a risk of serous ovarian cancer… twice that of women who consumed <2 servings/d… Milk was the dairy product with the strongest positive association with serous ovarian cancer… We observed a positive association between lactose intake and serous ovarian cancer risk…”
Reference: “Milk and lactose intakes and ovarian cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1353-7.
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The summary of a 2006 study in the International Journal of Cancer states: “It has been proposed… that consumption or metabolism of dairy sugar may increase the risk of ovarian cancer… We summarized the available literature on this topic using a meta-analytic approach… Eighteen case-control and 3 prospective cohort studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The findings of case-control studies were heterogeneous… the 3 cohort studies are consistent and show significant positive associations between intakes of total dairy foods, low-fat milk, and lactose and risk of ovarian cancer… In conclusion, prospective cohort studies, but not case-control studies, support the hypothesis that high intakes of dairy foods and lactose may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.”
Reference: “Milk, milk products and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies”. Int J Cancer. 2006;118(2):431-441.
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A 2016 report concludes: “the meta-analysis findings indicate that high consumption of total, saturated and trans-fats increase ovarian cancer risk…”
It was based on approximately 900,000 subjects from 16 case-control and 9 cohort studies on dietary fat intake.
Specific relevant notes: “High saturated fat intake was associated with a 34% increase in endometroid ovarian cancer risk. The RR [relative risk] for high animal fat intake was 1.36… suggesting a significant positive association [meaning higher incidence rates] between animal fat consumption and mucinous ovarian cancer risk...
Subgroup and sensitivity analysis… Saturated fat (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.04-1.39) and dairy fat (RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.79) intake could increase ovarian cancer risk…”
Reference: “Dietary fat intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies”, Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 14;7(24):37390-37406;at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27119509
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A 1998 report in the Cancer Causes & Control journal states: “Ovarian cancer risk was positively associated with increasing consumption of whole milk and other full-fat dairy foods… These data… suggest that reported associations between milk consumption and ovarian cancer are due to the fat content of milk and not to lactose or galactose.”
Reference: “Milk consumption, galactose metabolism and ovarian cancer (Australia)”, Cancer Causes & Control, 1998 Dec;9(6):637-44; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189050
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A study reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology “compared ovarian cancer incidence, per capita milk consumption, and population estimates of lactase persistence (the ability to digest lactose after infancy) in 27 countries. Significant positive correlations [meaning higher rates] were noted between ovarian cancer incidence, per capita milk consumption, and lactase persistence…”
Reference: “Lactase persistence and milk consumption as determinants of ovarian cancer risk”, American Journal of Epidemiology, 1989 Nov;130(5):904-10; at
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A 1984 report in the Obstetrics & Gynecology journal states: “Women with ovarian cancer favored foods higher in animal fats and consumed significantly greater amounts of animal fat and significantly less vegetable fat compared with control subjects… there was a significant trend for increasing risk for ovarian cancer with increasing animal fat consumption.”
Reference: “Dietary animal fat in relation to ovarian cancer risk”, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1984 Jun;63(6):833-8; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6728366/
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Consumption of Dairy & Higher Rates of Breast Cancer:
A 2015 study published in Breast Care – a peer-reviewed scientific journal – states: “High milk consumption increased the breast cancer risk by 7.2 times… High consumption of cow’s milk was a risk factor for the development of breast cancer.”
Reference: “Association of Milk and Meat Consumption with the Development of Breast Cancer in a Western Mexican Population”, Breast Care (Basel), 2015 Dec;10(6):393-6; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989358
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Regards dairy, meat and breast cancer the British Journal of Cancer reports: “For the 19 studies that examined food intake, the summary relative risks were 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.32) for meat, 1.17 (95% CI 1.04-1.31) for milk, and 1.17 (95% CI 1.02-1.36) for cheese.”
An RR of 1.17 denotes a 17% higher rate of cancer.
Reference: “A meta-analysis of studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk”, Br J Cancer. 1993 Sep;68(3):627-36; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8353053
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Conclusion from a 2013 report in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute: “Intake of high-fat dairy, but not low-fat dairy, was related to a higher risk of mortality after breast cancer diagnosis.” Some other notes about this study: “Dietary fat in dairy is a source of estrogenic hormones and may be related to worse breast cancer survival… We included 1893 women… diagnosed with early-stage invasive breast cancer… Compared with the reference (0 to <0.5 servings/day), those consuming larger amounts of high-fat dairy had higher breast cancer mortality (0.5 to <1.0 servings/day: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20… and ≥1.0 servings/day: HR = 1.49…), higher all-cause mortality… and higher non–breast cancer mortality… The higher risk appeared consistent across different types of high-fat dairy products.”
Reference: “High- and Low-Fat Dairy Intake, Recurrence, and Mortality After Breast Cancer Diagnosis”, J Natl Cancer Inst., 2013 May 1; 105(9): 616–623.; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639864/
A related newspaper article:
Daily Mail newspaper (UK) 2013: “Breast cancer patients who eat cheese, yogurts or ice cream could HALVE their chances of survival.
Eating one portion of a product containing full-fat milk each day could hinder survival chances. The hormone oestrogen found in milk and other dairy foods may encourage tumour growth, say researchers. This is the first study to show such a strong link between dairy products and breast cancer…
US scientists suspect this is because milk and other dairy foods contain the hormone oestrogen, which encourages tumour growth…
Around one in eight women will develop breast cancer at some point in their lives and there are around 50,000 new cases a year.
Although survival chances are far better than other forms of the illness it still leads to 11,800 deaths annually…
They point out that most milk consumed in Britain and the U.S. comes from pregnant cows and is rich in the hormone oestrogen.
This is known to trigger tumour growth and there are particularly high levels in full-fat dairy foods.
In fact women who ate one portion of full-fat dairy a day were 64 per cent more likely to die from any cause – not just breast cancer…”
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News Report about Avoiding Dairy Products in order to Beat Cancer:
From a 2014 article in the Telegraph newspaper UK titled “Give up dairy products to beat cancer.” Some excerpts: “A leading scientist, who has been fighting breast cancer since 1987, says the disease is overwhelmingly linked to animal products …
“We have all been brought up with the idea that milk is good for you,” says Prof [Jane] Plant. “But there is evidence now that the growth factors and hormones it contains are not just risky for breast cancer, but also other hormone-related cancers, of the prostate, testicles and ovary.”
Going dairy-free, she says, may also help patients with colorectal cancer, lymphoma and throat (but not lung) cancer. “Cows’ milk is good for calves – but not for us,” she adds.
With the relatively new science of epigenetics, scientists now understand that cancer-causing genes may not become active unless particular conditions arise that switch them on – and if those conditions change, they may be switched off. “This means that what you eat can have an impact at the genetic level,” says Prof Plant…
This can happen, say Profs Plant and Djamgoz, because the same growth factors and hormones as we produce are found in food that comes from animals, providing the very “fertiliser” that cancer cells need. Casein, the main protein in cows’ milk, is considered most dangerous. One eminent US nutritional scientist, Prof Colin Campbell at Cornell University, argues that it should be regarded just like oestrogen – as a leading carcinogen.
“Cow’s milk [organic or otherwise] has been shown to contain 35 different hormones and 11 growth factors,” says Prof Plant. High circulating levels of one such growth factor in milk, called IGF-1, is now strongly linked to the development of many cancers. Research has also found that “unbound” IGF levels are lower in vegans than in both meat-eaters and other vegetarians.
“This means that a vegan diet is lower in cancer-promoting molecules and higher in the binding proteins that reduce the action of these molecules,” she argues…
For those with cancer or at high risk of the disease, Prof Plant advocates, among other things, cutting out all dairy – from cows, sheep and goats, and whether organic or not. “If you have active cancer, there are no half-measures here.”
She also recommends limiting consumption of other animal protein, such as meat, fish and eggs, replacing this with vegetable protein such as soya – the main source of protein, she points out, in a traditional, rural Chinese diet. But if the evidence that cutting out dairy can successfully “beat cancer” is that strong, why haven’t we been told?
Prof Plant puts it down to vested interests – the dairy industry represents about 12 per cent of Britain’s GDP – and medical conservatism: oncologists, she says, “might be excellent at conventional treatments but are not experts in nutritional biochemistry”. The big cancer charities, for their part, place too much emphasis on drug development. As a result, “if you rely solely on the cancer prevention advice from government, charities, health professionals or the media, you will be missing out on vital and potentially life-saving information.”…
‘Beat Cancer: The 10-Step Plan to Help you Overcome and Prevent Cancer’ by Prof Mustafa Djamgoz and Prof Jane Plant is published by Vermilion…”
More information about Professor Plant is available here http://www.cancersupportinternational.com/janeplant.com/index.asp
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Dairy Consumption & Higher Rates of Lymphoma – Cancer of the Blood & Immune System:
Regards non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) a 2016 meta-analysis concluded: “This meta-analysis suggested that dairy product consumption, but not yogurt, may increase the risk of NHL.”
Specifically, they list the pooled relative risks (RR) of “NHL for the highest vs. lowest category of the consumption” as:
– 1.20 for total dairy product; 20% higher incidence.
– 1.41 for milk; 41% higher incidence.
– 1.31 for butter; 31% higher.
– 1.14 for cheese; 14% higher.
– 1.57 for ice cream; 57% higher.
“In subgroup analyses, the positive association between total dairy product consumption and the risk of NHL was found among case-control studies” with a RR of 1.41; meaning 41% higher incidence.
Also that the “pooled RRs (95% CIs) of NHL were 1.21… for milk consumption in studies conducted in North America, and 1.24… for cheese consumption in studies that adopted validated food frequency questionnaires.”
Regards the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma they “found statistically significant associations between the consumption of total dairy product” (with RR of 1.73) “and milk” (RR of 1.49); meaning 73% & 49% higher cancer incidence.
Another note of interest: “The dose-response analysis suggested that the risk of NHL increased by 5% (1.05 (1.00-1.10)) and 6% (1.06 (0.99-1.13)) for each 200 g/day increment of total dairy product and milk consumption, respectively.”
Reference: “Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis”, Nutrients. 2016 Feb 27;8(3):120; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26927171
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Consumption of Dairy & Gastric Colorectal Cancer:
Oncotarget journal reports on: “The relationship between dairy consumption and gastric cancer risk … meta-analysis … 5 cohort and 29 case-control studies. The odds ratio for the overall association between dairy consumption and gastric cancer was 1.20 … In conclusion, we found adverse effect of dairy consumption associated with gastric cancer.”
Reference: “Milk/dairy products consumption and gastric cancer: an update meta-analysis of epidemiological studies”, Oncotarget. 2018 Jan 23; 9(6): 7126–7135;
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A 2007 report concluded: “A family diet rich in dairy products during childhood is associated with a greater risk of colorectal cancer in adulthood.”
Further notes: “Evidence for a link between cancer risk and dairy consumption in adulthood is increasing… High childhood total dairy intake was associated with a near-tripling in the odds of colorectal cancer [multivariate odds ratio: 2.90…] compared with low intake, independent of meat, fruit, and vegetable intakes and socioeconomic indicators. Milk intake showed a similar association with colorectal cancer risk…”
Reference: “Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007 Dec;86(6):1722-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065592
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Regards gastric cancer a 2014 report concluded: “In our meta-analysis, dairy product consumption was associated with a nonsignificantly increased risk of gastric cancer.”
Specifically the “summary relative risk for gastric cancer, comparing the highest and lowest dairy product consumption categories, was 1.06”; meaning a 6% higher incidence.
Reference: “Dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis”, World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 14;20(42):15879-98; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400475
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Regards the Association of Carcinogenic Viruses in Meat & Dairy Milk and Cancer in Humans:
A 2015 article on the website of the University of Berkeley (USA) is titled “Virus in cattle linked to human breast cancer.” Some excerpts: “A new study by UC Berkeley researchers establishes for the first time a link between infection with the bovine leukemia virus [BLV] and human breast cancer…
They found that 59 percent of breast cancer samples had evidence of exposure to BLV, as determined by the presence of viral DNA. By contrast, 29 percent of the tissue samples from women who never had breast cancer showed exposure to BLV…
The new paper takes the earlier findings a step further by showing a higher likelihood of the presence of BLV in breast cancer tissue. When the data was analyzed statistically, the odds of having breast cancer if BLV were present was 3.1 times greater than if BLV was absent.
“This odds ratio is higher than any of the frequently publicized risk factors for breast cancer, such as obesity, alcohol consumption and use of post-menopausal hormones,” said Buehring.
There is precedence for viral origins of cancer. Hepatitis B virus is known to cause liver cancer, and the human papillomavirus can lead to cervical and anal cancers…
The virus could have come through the consumption of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat, or it could have been transmitted by other humans…
A 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture survey of bulk milk tanks found that 100 percent of dairy operations with large herds of 500 or more cows tested positive for BLV antibodies. This may not be surprising since milk from one infected cow is mixed in with others. Even dairy operations with small herds of fewer than 100 cows tested positive for BLV 83 percent of the time…”
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A 2017 report by Dr Michel Greger is titled “The Role of Burger Viruses in Cancer. Polyoma viruses discovered in meat can survive cooking and pasteurization.” The short video clip is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXXygh5hWJA
“Nearly 20% of cancer[s]… can be linked to infectious agents,” such as viruses... Polyomaviruses are a particular concern, not only because they are “known to be carcinogenic,” but because they can survive cooking temperatures. Because single burgers these days can contain meat from “many dozens of animals,” they figured it would “present an ideal situation for virus-hunting.” So, researchers at the National Cancer Institute just walked into three supermarkets, and grabbed meat right off the shelf, and found three different polyomaviruses in ground beef…
“Many people are exposed to potentially virus-contaminated meat and dairy products” through their diet, but those in the industry would be even more exposed. So, it would be interesting to see if these groups have higher cancer incidence. And indeed, it now appears clear that those who work “in the meat industry are at increased risk of developing and dying” from a variety of cancers.
Another “reason… to suspect the involvement of [some kind of] bovine infectious factor… in colorectal cancer” is the fact that countries that don’t eat a lot of beef appear to have relatively low rates of colorectal cancer. And, countries that all of a sudden started eating lots of meat had their rates shoot up…”
See the video presentation and transcript at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-role-of-burger-viruses-in-cancer/
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This site contains pages with hundreds of science reports on the higher rates of disease & death associated with eating red meat, dairy, chicken/poultry, eggs, fish/seafood & of the lower rates associated with eating healthy plant-based diets high in fruits & vegetables & nuts.
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The following are in addition to the quote & link further above for the 2005 report in the Medical Hypothesis journal on hormones in dairy and cancers in women (link goes to above section)
Other Reports About Hormones in Dairy Products & Links to Cancer:
From a 2015 report: “During the last couple of years, increasing body of evidence are indicating another property of hormones in dairy products as possible impact on human health including the role of some estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 in initiation and provoking of breast, prostate and endometrial tumours… The collected data from other researchers and our own data are indicating that the presence of steroid hormones in dairy products could be counted as an important risk factor for various cancers in humans.”
Reference: “Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health – A Narrative Review Article”, Iranian Journal of Public Health, 2015 Jun; 44(6): 742–758; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524299/
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“Hormones in Milk can be Dangerous” is an article in the Harvard University Gazette. Excerpts: “The link between cancer and dietary hormones – estrogen in particular – has been a source of great concern among scientists… The potential for risk is large. Natural estrogens are up to 100,000 times more potent than their environmental counterparts, such as the estrogen-like compounds in pesticides. “Among the routes of human exposure to estrogens, we are mostly concerned about cow’s milk, which contains considerable amounts of female sex hormones,” Ganmaa told her audience. Dairy, she added, accounts for 60 percent to 80 percent of estrogens consumed…”
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Dairy Consumption Associated with Increased Bone Fracture Rates (indicative of Osteoporosis):
The conclusion of a 2014 report in the British Medical Journal states: “High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women…”
Reference: “Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies”, BMJ 2014; 349; http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015
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A 1994 study in the American Journal of Epidemiology found likewise that: “Consumption of dairy products, particularly at age 20 years, was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in old age…”
Regards the study the “objective of this population-based case-control study was to identify risk factors for hip fracture among elderly women and men, particularly factors during young and middle adult life.
The study base comprised people aged 65 years and over living in a defined region in Sydney, Australia, during 1990-1991. Cases were recruited from 12 hospitals, and controls were selected using an area probability sampling method, with additional sampling from nursing homes… ”
Reference: “Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly”, Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 1;139:493-505. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8154473
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Dairy Consumption Associated with Highest Rates of Bone Fractures:
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine: “in a 12-year Harvard study of 78,000 women, those who drank milk three times a day actually broke more bones than women who rarely drank milk.  Similarly, a 1994 study of elderly men and women in Sydney, Australia, showed that higher dairy product consumption was associated with increased fracture risk. Those with the highest dairy product consumption had approximately double the risk of hip fracture compared to those with the lowest consumption. …”
From an article titled “Calcium and Strong Bones” – http://www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/calcium-and-strong-bones
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Comparison of Osteoporosis Incidence & Dairy Consumption in Africa:
A 2016 article from the International Bone and Mineral Society reports on: “The appearance of a high correlation between pastoralism or dairy farming and osteoporosis in Africa…”
They state: “Hip fracture rates for females in the non-dairy, West African tsetse belt nations… average 3.0 hip fractures per 100 000 for women aged 50 years and older… Kenya, on the other hand… Dairy farming/pastoralism is prevalent, and the rate of post-menopausal hip fractures averaged 243 per 100 000…”
In other words they found “the risk of osteoporosis to be 80 times higher” in the dairy farming regions as compared to the non-dairy regions.
Other notes of interest: “For nearly three decades, medical researchers had grappled with the ‘paradox’ of African-Americans being deemed calcium deficient by national nutritional standards, while suffering the lowest rate of osteoporosis and highest bone mineral density (BMD) levels of any American ethnic group… Their low dairy consumption rate is attributable to the fact that 70% of this population is also lactase non-persistent.”
Another comment of interest: “It is generally true that the consumption of animal protein is greatest in the West [meaning European nations], where susceptibility to osteoporosis is highest.”
And in regards to the high consumption of dairy in India: “Although that country’s inhabitants consume 105.10 kilograms of dairy per capita each year… Osteoporosis is widely prevalent in India and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in both men and women.”
Reference: “High osteoporosis risk among East Africans linked to lactase persistence genotype”, Bonekey Reports, 2016; 5: 803; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926535/
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Milk Consumption during Teenage Years Associated with a Higher Rate of Hip Fractures in Men:
From a 2014 study titled “Milk Consumption During Teenage Years and Risk of Hip Fractures in Older Adults” published in the Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics – “Results: … After controlling for known risk factors and current milk consumption, each additional glass of milk per day during teenage years was associated with a significant 9% higher risk of hip fracture in men… Teenage milk consumption was not associated with hip fractures in women…”
More regards the study: “Objectives: To determine whether milk consumption during teenage years influences risk of hip fracture in older adults and to investigate the role of attained height in this association.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study over 22 years of follow-up in more than 96,000 white postmenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study and men aged 50 years and older from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States.
Conclusions and Relevance: Greater milk consumption during teenage years was not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in older adults…”
Reference: JAMA Pediatrics, 2014;168(1):54-60; at
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Regards dairy consumption and bone health Pediatrics journal published a review of 58 studies. The conclusion states: “Scant evidence supports nutrition guidelines focused specifically on increasing milk or other dairy product intake for promoting child and adolescent bone mineralization.”
From the results section: “Eleven of the studies did not control for weight, pubertal status, and exercise and were excluded. Ten studies were randomized, controlled trials of supplemental calcium, 9 of which showed modest positive benefits on bone mineralization in children and adolescents. Of the remaining 37 studies of dairy or unsupplemented dietary calcium intake, 27 studies found no relationship between dairy or dietary calcium intake and measures of bone health. In the remaining 9 reports, the effects on bone health are small and 3 were confounded by vitamin D intake from milk fortified with vitamin D.
Therefore, in clinical, longitudinal, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies, neither increased consumption of dairy products, specifically, nor total dietary calcium consumption has shown even a modestly consistent benefit for child or young adult bone health.”
Reference: “Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence”, Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):736-43; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15741380/
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Dr Michael Greger MD article “Does Animal Protein Cause Osteoporosis?” at
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Dr Michael Greger has provided 21 videos on osteoporosis and nutrition matters at https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/osteoporosis/ The relevant science journal studies are usually shown in each video.
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2014 BBC report: “High milk diet ‘may not cut risk of bone fractures” at http://www.bbc.com/news/health-29805374
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Scientific Studies that report Dairy Consumption is Associated with Higher Rates of Cardiovascular Disease:
2017 report in Healthcare, an international peer-reviewed journal: “Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years.
While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk.
For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk.
While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids.”
Reference: “Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk”, Healthcare, 2017 Jun 21; 5(2); at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635680
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In regards to saturated fats the Harvard School of Public Health states: “Pizza and cheese are the biggest food sources of saturated fat in the U.S. diet, and other dairy products and meat products are also major contributors.”
From a 2018 report by the American Heart Association regards a study on dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: “Mono-unsaturated fats from plants, not animals may reduce risk of death from heart disease and other causes.”
The researchers analyzed dietary information for more than 90,000 people with an average follow-up of 22 years. They found that:
– “Replacing saturated fats, refined carbohydrates (like simple sugars) or trans fats with an equal number of calories (2 percent – 5 percent of the total) from mono-unsaturated fatty acids from plants might lower the risk of heart disease deaths and death from any cause between 10 percent and 15 percent.
– Replacing mono-unsaturated fatty acids from animals with an equal amount of calories (5 percent of the total) of mono-unsaturated fatty acids from plants might lower the risk of heart disease deaths and deaths from any cause between 24 percent to 26 percent…”
– “Participants with a higher intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids from plants had a 16 percent lower risk of death from any cause compared to those with lower intakes.
– Participants with a higher intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids from animals had a 21 percent higher risk of death from any cause.”
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The American Journal of Epidemiology reports: “CHD mortality was associated with red meats (risk ratio = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.94) and dairy products (risk ratio = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.86) when substituted for servings per 1,000 kcal (4.2 MJ) of carbohydrate foods.” The conclusion of the study of 29,017 people states: “Long-term adherence to high-protein diets, without discrimination toward protein source, may have potentially adverse health consequences.”
Reference: “Associations of dietary protein with disease and mortality in a prospective study of postmenopausal women”, Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Feb 1;161(3):239-49; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671256
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2018 report “Is Too Much Protein Bad for Men’s Heart Health?” Excerpt: “Those who ate the most animal protein were 43 percent more likely to be diagnosed with heart failure; and those who ate the most dairy protein were 49 percent more likely to be diagnosed with heart failure, compared with those who ate the least amounts of animal and dairy protein…”
The study: “Intake of Different Dietary Proteins and Risk of Heart Failure in Men”, Circulation: Heart Failure, 2018;11:e004531;
For more science news reports about protein click that link to go to this site’s page: 50+ clips, quotes & links on the health benefits of consuming protein in plant foods and comparisons to the higher rates of death and illness associated with eating protein from animals.
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Increased Occurrence of Ischemic Heart Disease:
A 2007 report concluded: “These data suggest that a high intake of dairy fat is associated with a greater risk of IHD” – ischemic heart disease.
The study on 32,826 women found that those “with higher plasma concentrations of 15:0 [a biomarker of dairy fat intake] had a significantly higher risk of IHD. The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (95% CI) from the lowest to highest tertile of 15:0 concentrations in plasma were 1.0 (reference), 2.18…, and 2.36…”
Reference: “Plasma and erythrocyte biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of ischemic heart disease”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007 Oct;86(4):929-37; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17921367
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A 2003 report in the New Zealand Medical Journal reports: “milk and cream (A1/capita) was significantly and positively correlated with [higher rates of] IHD [ischaemic heart disease] in 20 affluent countries five years later over a 20-year period–providing an alternative hypothesis to explain the high IHD mortality rates in northern compared to southern Europe.”
Reference: “Ischaemic heart disease, Type 1 diabetes, and cow milk A1 beta-casein”, N Z Med J. 2003 Jan 24;116(1168):U295; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12601419
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Increased Incidence of Stroke:
A 2009 report in the Epidemiology journal concludes: “These findings suggest that intake of certain dairy foods may be associated with risk of stroke.”
They found a 41% higher risk related to whole milk and 83% higher risk for yoghurt.
Notes: “We observed positive associations [meaning higher rates] between whole milk intake and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (RR = 1.41 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake…) and between yogurt intake and subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR = 1.83 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake…)”
Reference: “Dairy foods and risk of stroke”, Epidemiology. 2009 May;20(3):355-60; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057387
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Most Adults Are Lactose Intolerant – Consuming Dairy Can Make Them Ill:
US National Library of Medicine: “Approximately 65 percent of the human population has a reduced ability to digest lactose after infancy. Lactose intolerance in adulthood is most prevalent in people of East Asian descent, affecting more than 90 percent of adults in some of these communities. Lactose intolerance is also very common in people of West African, Arab, Jewish, Greek, and Italian descent.” Symptoms include: “abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, nausea, and diarrhea”. In infants: “severe dehydration and weight loss.” Source: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/lactose-intolerance#statistics
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From the German Journal of Nutrition Science: “With the exception of the caucasian race, the lactase activity decreases in most people at an age of 4 to 6 years. Lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, and diarrhea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended to those persons that they refrain from the consumption of milk and dairy products.”
Reference: “Lactose intolerance and consumption of milk and milk products”, Zeitschrift Fur Ernahrungswissenschaft (German Journal of Nutrition Science), 1997 Dec;36(4):375-93; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9467238
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“Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk… The frequency of lactose maldigestion varies widely among populations… In North American adults lactose maldigestion is found in approximately 79% of Native Americans, 75% of blacks, 51% of Hispanics, and 21% of Caucasians. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America prevalence rates range from 15-100% depending on the population studied.”
Reference: “The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1988 Oct;48(4 Suppl):1079-159; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3140651
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“In 1965, investigators at Johns Hopkins found that 15% of all the white people and almost three-quarters of all the black people they tested were unable to digest lactose. Milk, it seemed, was a racial issue, and far more people in the world are unable than able to digest lactose. That includes most Thais, Japanese, Arabs and Ashkenazi Jews, and 50% of Indians.” Source article: “Dairy Monsters” at https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2003/dec/13/foodanddrink.weekend
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“The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia [lactose intolerance] varies from less than 5% to almost 100% between different populations of the world. The lowest prevalence has been found in northwestern Europe, around the North Sea, and the highest prevalence in the Far East. The reason for the variation is that selective (primary) hypolactasia is genetically determined… It is assumed that thousands of years ago all people had hypolactasia in the same way as most mammals do today…”
Reference: “Genetics and epidemiology of adult-type hypolactasia”, Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology Supplement, 1994;202:7-20; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8042019
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Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine: “Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest the milk sugar lactose, causing gastrointestinal symptoms of flatulence, bloating, cramps, and diarrhea in some individuals…
Virtually all infants and young children have the lactase enzymes that split lactose into glucose and galactose, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Prior to the mid-1960s, most American health professionals believed that these enzymes were present in nearly all adults as well. When researchers tested various ethnic groups for their ability to digest lactose, however, their findings proved otherwise.
Approximately 70 percent of African Americans, 90 percent of Asian Americans, 53 percent of Mexican Americans, and 74 percent of Native Americans [are] lactose intolerant. Studies showed that a substantial reduction in lactase activity is also common among those whose ancestry is African, Asian, Native American, Arab, Jewish, Hispanic, Italian, or Greek.
In 1988, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported, “It rapidly became apparent that this pattern was the genetic norm, and that lactase activity was sustained only in a majority of adults whose origins were in Northern European or some Mediterranean populations.” In other words, Caucasians tolerate milk sugar only because of an inherited genetic mutation.
Overall, about 75 percent of the world’s population, including 25 percent of those in the U.S., lose their lactase enzymes after weaning…”
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Is it arguably “racist” to promote dairy to people of races with higher rates of lactose intolerance and related illness?
Part 1 of a report in the Journal of the National Medical Association: “The Dietary Guidelines for Americans form the basis for all federal nutrition programs and incorporate the Food Guide Pyramid … The Pyramid recommends two to three daily servings of dairy products. However, research has shown that lactase nonpersistence, the loss of enzymes that digest the milk sugar lactose, occurs in a majority of African-, Asian-, Hispanic-, and Native-American individuals. Whites are less likely to develop lactase nonpersistence and less likely to have symptoms when it does occur. Calcium is available in other foods that do not contain lactose. Osteoporosis is less common among African Americans and Mexican Americans than among whites, and there is little evidence that dairy products have an effect on osteoporosis among racial minorities. Evidence suggests that a modification of federal nutrition policies, making dairy-product use optional in light of other calcium sources, may be a helpful public health measure.”
Reference: “Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part I: The public health implications of variations in lactase persistence.” J Natl Med Assoc. 1999 Mar; 91(3): 151–157; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2608451/
Part 2 of that report in the Journal of the National Medical Association: “Many diet-related chronic diseases take a disproportionate toll among members of racial minorities. Research shows the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and heart disease is higher among various ethnic groups compared with whites. The Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid, however, promote the use of multiple servings of meats and dairy products each day and do not encourage replacing these foods with vegetables, legumes, fruits, and grains … Abundant evidence has shown that regular exercise combined with diets lower in fat and richer in plant products than is encouraged by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are associated with reduced risk of these chronic conditions. While ineffective Dietary Guidelines potentially put all Americans at unnecessary risk, this is particularly true for those groups hardest hit by chronic disease.”
Reference: “Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part II: Weak guidelines take a disproportionate toll”, J Natl Med Assoc. 1999 Apr;91(4):201-8; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10333669
Dr Milton Mills, a co-author of those above two reports, discusses this topic in a clip titled “Dairy & Racism” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKzUD8eFb0E
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Adverse Effects of Cow’s Milk on Babies:
Summary of adverse risks: dehydration, diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding, type 1 diabetes mellitus, iron deficiency anemia, cognitive and psychomotor impairment.
Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics: “Studies… have demonstrated that the introduction of WCM [whole cow’s milk] prior to the first birthday is associated with an increased risk of occult gastrointestinal bleeding and an increased incidence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency anemia in infants less than 1 year of age has been shown to be associated with cognitive and psychomotor impairment; such impairment may not be correctable with iron therapy…”
Reference: “Whole Cow Milk Feeding Between 6 and 12 Months of Age? Go Back to 1976.” Pediatrics in Review, December 1990, Volume 12, Issue 6; http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/content/12/6/187
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Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health: “Early introduction of whole cow’s milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia… Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow’s milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow’s milk and products containing intact cow’s milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged…
The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow’s milk be used during the first year of life.”
Reference: “Whole cow’s milk in infancy”, Paediatrics & Child Health, 2003 Sep; 8(7): 419–421; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2791650/
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An article titled “Comparison Between Human Milk and Cow’s Milk” states: “the popular consensus among health care professionals is that ordinary cow’s milk, goat’s milk, condensed milk, dried milk, evaporated milk, or any other type of milk should not be given to a child under the age of one. This is because of differences in the composition of milk that have been revealed by research over the last decade or so. While cow’s milk and human milk contain a similar percentage of water, the relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals vary widely…”
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Quotes from a 2011 report in Nutrition Reviews: “Consumption of cow’s milk (CM) by infants and toddlers has adverse effects on their iron stores, a finding that has been well documented in many localities…
A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss associated with CM consumption during infancy, a condition that affects about 40% of otherwise healthy infants…
Consumption of CM produces a high renal solute load, which leads to a higher urine solute concentration than consumption of breast milk or formula, thereby narrowing the margin of safety during dehydrating events, such as diarrhea.
The high protein intake from CM may also place infants at increased risk of obesity in later childhood…”
Reference: “Consumption of cow’s milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers”, Nutrition Reviews, 2011 Nov; 69 Suppl 1:S37-42; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043881
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“The feeding of cow’s milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children… The feeding of cow’s milk to infants is undesirable because of cow’s milk’s propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.”
Reference: “Adverse effects of cow’s milk in infants”, 2007;60:185-96; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17664905
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Click this following link to go to the section on this page with more reports on the association of milk consumption in early childhood with type 1 diabetes.
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Consuming Dairy Products & Increased Risk of Parkinson’s Disease:
A 2015 article in Time magazine is titled “Drinking Milk Is Linked to Parkinson’s Disease: Study“. Some excerpts: “Studies have found a connection between the consumption of dairy products and a higher risk of developing Parkinson disease, the neurodegenerative disorder that affects motor neurons in the brain. While researchers speculated that chemicals found in cows’ milk might be responsible… Now, scientists may have uncovered a promising clue. Reporting in the journal Neurology… They found that men who reported drinking more than two glasses of milk a day (16 oz) showed the thinnest nerve networks in these areas, suggesting compromised function of these nerves, compared to men who drank little or no milk. The milk drinkers also had residues of specific organochlorines called heptachlor epoxide… Heptachlor epoxide is no longer used as an insecticide in the U.S. According to the Environmental Protection Agency… But it tends to be persistent, remaining in soil and water for many years…”
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Regards dairy consumption and Parkinson’s disease (PD), the European Journal of Epidemiology report a “meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on dairy foods”, covering 304,193 people: “The combined risk of PD for highest vs. lowest level of dairy foods intake was 1.40 … overall, 1.66 … for men and 1.15 … for women.”
For highest vs. lowest level of dairy consumption the PD risk was 1.45 for milk and 1.26 for cheese.
“The linear dose-response relationship showed that PD risk increased by 17% … for every 200 g/day increment in milk intake … and 13% … for every 10 g/day increment in cheese intake”
Reference: “Dairy foods intake and risk of Parkinson’s disease: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.” Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Sep;29(9):613-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24894826
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“Could Lactose Explain the Milk & Parkinson’s Disease Link?”
clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gitX1ZsejJw
Excerpt: “Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease … The dietary component most often implicated is milk, for which contamination of milk by neurotoxins has been considered the only possible explanation. High levels of organochlorine pesticide residues have been found in milk, and in the most affected areas in the brains of Parkinson’s victims, on autopsy …
What one needs are prospective cohort studies where you measure milk consumption first, and then follow people over time. And, such studies still found a significant increased risk associated with dairy intake. The risk increased by 17% for every small glass of milk a day, and 13% for every daily half slice of cheese…
The relationship between dairy and Huntington’s appears similar. Huntington’s disease is a horrible degenerative brain disease that runs in families, whose early onset may be doubled by dairy consumption…”
Text and references at
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A 2007 report on more than 130,000 people concluded: “Meta-analysis of all prospective studies confirmed a moderately elevated risk of Parkinson’s disease among persons with high dairy product consumption…”
Reference: “Consumption of dairy products and risk of Parkinson’s disease”, Am J Epidemiol. 2007 May 1;165(9):998-1006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17272289
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Dr Greger clip: “Preventing Parkinson’s Disease With Diet.”
Summary: “Low levels of neurotoxic chemicals in cheese may explain the connection between dairy product consumption and Parkinson’s disease.”
Excerpt: “we know that every single prospective study on dairy products or milk and Parkinson’s disease tended to find increased risk. It may be that “dairy products in the United States are contaminated with neurotoxic chemicals.” There’s substantial evidence suggesting that “exposure to pesticides may increase Parkinson’s disease risk,” and autopsies found higher levels of pollutants and pesticides in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients, and some of these toxins are present at low levels in dairy products.
They’re talking about toxins like tetrahydroisoquinoline, a Parkinsonism-related compound found predominantly in cheese. Although the amounts of this neurotoxin—even in cheese—are not really high, the concern is that the chemical may accumulate in the brain over long periods of consumption…”
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Regards dairy consumption and Parkinson’s disease (PD), a study of over 130,000 people concluded: “Frequent consumption of dairy products appears to be associated with a modest increased risk of PD in women and men.”
Specifically: “The pooled, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) comparing people who consumed at least 3 servings of low-fat dairy per day to those who consumed none was 1.34 … This association appeared to be driven by an increased risk of PD associated with skim and low-fat milk” with HR of 1.39.
“Results were similar in women and men … In the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risk comparing extreme categories of total milk intake was 1.56 … and the association between total dairy and PD became significant; with HR of 1.27
Reference: “Intake of dairy foods and risk of Parkinson disease”, Neurology. 2017 Jul 4;89(1):46-52; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28596209
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Dairy Consumption and Diabetes:
From a journal of the American Diabetes Association, based on records from a dozen nations: “Correlation between milk consumption and incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was 0.96. The data fit a linear regression model, and analysis showed that 94% of the geographic variation in incidence might be explained by differences in milk consumption… The results support the hypothesis that cows’ milk may contain a triggering factor for the development of IDDM.”
Reference: “Relationship between cows’ milk consumption and incidence of IDDM in childhood”, Diabetes Care, 1991 Nov;14(11):1081-3; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1797491
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The conclusion of a journal report via the American Diabetes Association: “Early cow’s milk exposure may be an important determinant of subsequent type I diabetes and may increase the risk approximately 1.5 times.”
Notes: “Ecological and time-series studies consistently showed a relationship between type I diabetes and either cow’s milk exposure or diminished breast-feeding. In the case-control studies, patients with type I diabetes were more likely to have been breast-fed for < 3 months” – with an overall Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.43 – “and to have been exposed to cow’s milk before 4 months” – with an overall OR of 1.63; meaning 63% higher incidence.
Reference: “Cow’s milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature”, Diabetes Care, 1994 Jan;17(1):13-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8112184
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Dr Greger clip: “Does Casein in Milk Trigger Type 1 Diabetes?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDZHBaiSHWo
Excerpts: “the concordance for type 1 diabetes is only about 50% among identical twins—meaning even if someone with the same DNA as you gets the disease, there’s only about a 50% chance you’ll get it too, meaning there must be external factors, as well…
the incidence rates vary more than 350-fold around the world… A number of factors have been postulated for tipping children over into diabetes, including vitamin D deficiency, certain infections, or exposure to cow’s milk.
Decades ago, cross-country comparisons like this were published, showing a tight correlation between milk consumption and the incidence of type 1 diabetes—insulin-dependent, childhood-onset diabetes—showing as much as “94% of the geographic variation in incidence might be explained by differences in milk consumption [alone].”…
And, so, maybe, as our immune system attacks the foreign cow proteins, our pancreas gets caught in the crossfire…
So, researchers drew blood from children with type 1 diabetes to see if they had elevated levels of antibodies that attack bovine proteins, compared to controls. And, every single one of the affected kids had elevated anti-bovine protein antibodies circulating in their blood, compared to much lower levels in the control subjects…”
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From a 2017 report in Nutrition & Diabetes: “Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors…
We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression.
We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows’ milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors…
Within this framework, removal of a dominant dietary trigger may profoundly affect type 1 diabetes incidence…”
Reference: “A1 beta-casein milk protein and other environmental pre-disposing factors for type 1 diabetes”, Nutrition and Diabetes, 2017 May 15;7(5):e274; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28504710
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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Does Bovine Insulin in Milk Trigger Type 1 Diabetes?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDQYxdJbIio
Summary: “Is it the casein or the cow insulin that explains the link between milk consumption and the development of type I diabetes?”
Text at: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-bovine-insulin-in-milk-trigger-type-1-diabetes/
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From a report in Diabetes journal: “Cow’s milk feeding is an environmental trigger of immunity to insulin in infancy that may explain the epidemiological link between the risk of type 1 diabetes and early exposure to cow’s milk formulas. This immune response to insulin may later be diverted into autoaggressive immunity against beta-cells in some individuals, as indicated by our findings in children with diabetes-associated autoantibodies.”
Reference: “Cow’s milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes”, Diabetes, 1999 Jul;48(7):1389-94; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10389843
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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Some dietary factors have been associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood… Among dietary items of animal origin, meat… and dairy products… were predictors of elevated incidence rates, whereas among dietary items of vegetal origin, cereals… were inverse predictors…”
Reference: “Nutritional factors and worldwide incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes”, Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;71(6):1525-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10837294
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A study published in 2012 found that consumption of normal cows milk formula (CMF) led to higher amounts of autoantibodies that are associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The conclusion: “In comparison with ordinary CMF, weaning to an insulin-free CMF reduced the cumulative incidence of autoantibodies by age 3 years in children at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus.”
Reference: “Removal of Bovine Insulin From Cow’s Milk Formula and Early Initiation of Beta-Cell Autoimmunity in the FINDIA Pilot Study”, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Jul 1;166(7):608-14; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393174
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Regards milk intake and type 1 diabetes, from a 2006 report: “To compare the consumption of the cow milk proteins A1 and B beta-casein among children and adolescents in Iceland and Scandinavia…. consumption of A1 beta-casein correlated with the incidence of type 1 diabetes in the countries… This study supports that lower consumption of A1 beta-casein might be related to the lower incidence of type 1 diabetes in Iceland than in Scandinavia. Additionally it indicates that consumption in young childhood might be of more importance for the development of the disease incidence than consumption in adolescence.”
Reference: “Lower consumption of cow milk protein A1 beta-casein at 2 years of age, rather than consumption among 11- to 14-year-old adolescents, may explain the lower incidence of type 1 diabetes in Iceland than in Scandinavia”, Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(3):177-83; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16407643
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Regards milk intake and type 1 diabetes, a report in Diabetologia journal reports: “Previously published Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus incidence in 0 to 14-year-old children from 10 countries or areas was compared with the national annual cow milk protein consumption… Total protein consumption did not correlate with diabetes incidence (r = +0.402), but consumption of the beta-casein A1 variant did (r = +0.726). Even more pronounced was the relation between beta-casein (A1+B) consumption and diabetes (r = +0.982). These latter two cow caseins yield a bioactive peptide beta-casomorphin-7 after in vitro digestion with intestinal enzymes whereas the common A2 variant or the corresponding human or goat caseins do not. beta-casomorphin-7 has opioid properties including immunosuppression, which could account for the specificity of the relation between the consumption of some but not all beta-casein variants and diabetes incidence.”
Reference: “Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and cow milk: casein variant consumption”, Diabetologia, 1999 Mar;42(3):292-6; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10096780
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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Does Paratuberculosis in Milk Trigger Type 1 Diabetes?” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Mf7KtDquyM
Summary: “Fear of consumer reaction” led the U.S. dairy industry to suppress the discovery in retail milk of live paraTB bacteria, a pathogen linked to type 1 diabetes.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-paratuberculosis-in-milk-trigger-type-1-diabetes/
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From an American Diabetes Association journal: “These observations indicate that an early exposure to cow’s milk formula-feeding and rapid growth in infancy are independent risk factors of childhood type 1 diabetes.”
Reference: “Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Childhood Diabetes in Finland (DiMe) Study Group”, Diabetes Care, 1999 Dec;22(12):1961-5; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10587826
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The conclusion of a report in Diabetes journal states: “our results provide support for the hypothesis that high consumption of cow’s milk during childhood can be diabetogenic in siblings of children with type 1 diabetes.”
Specifically the “estimated relative risk of childhood milk consumption for progression to type 1 diabetes was 5.37…”
Reference: “Cow’s milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type 1 diabetes: a nested case-control study of siblings of children with diabetes. Childhood diabetes in Finland study group”, Diabetes, 2000 Jun;49(6):912-7; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10866042
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A 1998 report states: “Twin studies, major geographical variations in incidence rates, temporal trends in the incidence and findings in migrant studies indicate that environmental factors play a crucial role in the development of Type 1 diabetes. In the present review the major focus is on dietary factors, and among them particularly the possible role of cow’s milk proteins. The cow’s milk and Type 1 diabetes hypothesis was developed more than 10 years ago…”
Reference: “Putative environmental factors in Type 1 diabetes”, Diabetes Metab Rev. 1998 Mar;14(1):31-67; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9605629
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From the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Cow milk, coffee, sugar, and meat products have been positively and cereal products inversely related to the risk of type 1 diabetes in ecologic correlation studies that compared per capita consumption with disease incidence…
according to the case-control findings, rapid weight gain in infancy and early exposure to cow milk are both independent risk predictors of type 1 diabetes…
Increased numbers of antibodies toward a series of cow milk proteins have been detected repeatedly in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes…
It has been shown that small amounts of cow milk proteins may be carried over to breast milk from the maternal diet… This raises the issue of the possible transfer of bovine insulin through breast milk in breastfed infants… it has been shown that bovine insulin in cow milk-based formulas induces initially an immune response…”
Reference: “Nutritional risk predictors of β cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes at a young age”, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 78, Issue 6, 1 December 2003, Pages 1053–1067; https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/78/6/1053/4677513
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Regards dairy milk and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) an Australian study found that: “The introduction of cow’s milk-based infant formula into the diet before 3 months of age was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.52…).” That Odds Ratio means a 52% higher risk of IDDM.
And that “High dietary intake of cow’s milk protein in the 12 months before the onset of diabetic symptoms was also associated with an increased risk…” The OR was 1.84 meaning an 84% increased risk of IDDM.
The study’s conlusion: “These results indicate an increased risk of IDDM associated with early dietary exposure to cow’s milk-containing formula, short duration of exclusive breast-feeding, high intake of cow’s milk protein in the recent diet, recent infection, and early attendance at day care.”
Reference: “Environmental factors in childhood IDDM. A population-based, case-control study”, Diabetes Care, 1994 Dec;17(12):1381-9; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7882806
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A 2003 report found: “The incidence of type 1 diabetes correlated with the consumption of total fat… saturated fatty acids… Fruit intake or vegetable intake alone did not correlate with the incidence. Cow’s milk and animal product consumption correlated with the incidence when Icelandic data were excluded… A negative correlation of borderline significance was found between sugar intake and the incidence of type 1 diabetes… This study supports previous research about the importance of cow’s milk and animal products in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes.”
Reference: “Dietary intake of 10- to 16-year-old children and adolescents in central and northern Europe and association with the incidence of type 1 diabetes”, Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):267-75; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14520022
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Dairy Milk & Cheese Consumption & Obesity:
Dr Rosane Oliveira, DVM, PhD “What Makes Us Fat?” Excerpts: “More than two-thirds of adults in America are considered to be overweight or obese, with 1 in 20 suffering from extreme obesity. Obesity is linked to a myriad of chronic, life-threatening diseases including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
It is also expensive… nothing short of an epidemic…
To answer one simple question: what makes us fat?…
To evaluate, let’s look at our daily consumption of calories and nutrients to see how our diet changed between 1970 and 2010…
For starters, we now eat almost 500 extra calories a day!..
cheese consumption has risen 153 percent... cheese is the number one source of saturated fats in the American diet and very high in sodium…
Between 1970 and 2010, our fat intake increased 67 percent!
Another way of looking at this is that almost half of those extra 500 calories we eat each day come from fat (while another 37 percent comes from refined (not whole) grains)…
In conclusion, we are fat because we eat too much fat…
The ensuing metabolic changes (i.e. insulin and leptin resistance) caused by this excessive consumption compromises our brain’s ability to regulate appetite and satiety.
The best way out is to reduce the consumption of fats (especially saturated fats found in animal-based foods and plant-based tropical fats and oils) and revert to a low-fat, whole food, plant-based diet.
This will stop the downward spiral by replacing your previous energy-dense diet with one naturally low in calories and yet high in nutritional density. Equally, it will ensure that the carbohydrates you eat are the right kind (i.e. ‘intact’ and unprocessed).
Obesity may be a daunting enemy but through the proper diet (lifestyle), it can indeed be conquered.”
Dairy Milk Consumption & Childhood Obesity:
2017 news article: “Obesity warning for parents after study finds toddlers ‘consume four times too much protein on average. Infants aged one need less than 10g of protein per day, but those who took part in the study were consuming 40g on average. Parents have been warned to watch their children’s intake of meat, cheese and milk after researchers linked protein-rich diets to higher levels of body fat…
protein from animal sources had the greatest effect on levels of body fat, adding it was not just a case of children being given too much milk, with other protein sources such as cheese, yoghurt, meat and fish all adding up.
Around one in five British 10- and 11-year-olds and nearly one in ten four- and five-year-olds are obese, according to figures from the National Child Measurement Programme…
“Protein from animal sources can trigger the release of insulin and other growth factors, which specifically results in body fat,” she said, adding more research is needed to discern exactly why this effect takes place…”
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Dr Michael Greger MD’s clip “Formula for Childhood Obesity” is at
Summary: “Feeding infants cow’s milk formula may adversely alter metabolic programming.”
Text at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/formula-for-childhood-obesity/
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From a 2011 report: “Whole cow’s milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content…. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow’s milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood.”
Reference: “Whole cow’s milk in early life”, Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program, 2011; 67:29-40; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21335988
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Dr Michael Greger MD’s 2017 article “How Milk May Contribute to Childhood Obesity”
– excerpts: “We’ve known that breastfed infants may be protected against obesity later in life for more than 30 years, but why? It may be the formula. Giving infants formula based on cow’s milk presents an unusual situation. Cow’s milk is designed to put nearly two pounds a day onto a growing calf, 40times the growth rate of human infants (see ‘Formula for Childhood Obesity’).
The perfect food for humans, finely tuned over millions of years, is human breast milk. Remarkably, among all mammalian species, the protein content of human milk is the lowest. The excessive protein content of cow’s milk-based formula is thought to be what sets the child up for obesity later in life…
A study out of Indiana University, for example, found evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of premature puberty; girls drinking a lot of milk started to get their periods earlier. Thus, cross-species milk consumption and ingestion into childhood may trigger unintended consequences…
consumption of cow’s milk and other dairy products during adolescence and adulthood is an evolutionarily novel behavior that may have long-term adverse effects on human health.
Teens exposed to dairy proteins, such as casein, skim milk, or whey, experienced a significant increase in BMI and waist circumference compared to a control group. In contrast, not a single study funded by the dairy industry found a result unfavorable to milk…”
Article at https://nutritionfacts.org/2017/03/16/how-milk-may-contribute-to-childhood-obesity/
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For short clips and reports about the links between chicken consumption and obesity click that link for the relevant page on this site.
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Female Hormones in Dairy Milk & Other Adverse Effects:
Dr Greger clip: “Dairy Hormonal Interference.”
Excerpt: “Human beings are the only species on earth that from the beginning of [infancy] into adulthood are subjected to [this] external hormonal manipulation (…) Milk developed over the course of mammalian evolution…only to be consumed during infancy. The consumption of cow’s milk [in humans] interferes with the sensitive endocrine regulatory network from the fetal period into old age.”
While dairy is being re-evaluated as human food, in the very least, “given the tumor promotor effect of IGF-1 [insulin-like growth factor 1, from dairy], patients with tumorous disease should restrict consumption of milk and milk protein.” Unfortunately, we don’t know if we have a tumor until it gets big enough to be picked up. “The same applies to patients with coronary heart disease [the #1 killer in the United States] and [those] with a family history of neurodegenerative disease. [Milk has]…already been identified as an aggravating factor in the acne epidemic…[but] it is even more important that excessive milk consumption can promote diseases commonly associated with a Western lifestyle.”…”
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Regards Dairy, Meat, Raised Estrogen levels and Disease … From the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition: A] Regards estrodiol, the most potent estrogen: “Mean concentrations of total & free estradiol were 15 & 14% higher for women in the highest quartile of dairy product consumption than for those in the lowest …”
B) Regards sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) which inhibits the function of estrogens: “Mean SHBG concentrations were approximately 8% & 13% lower for women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of total red & fresh red meat consumption …” 
In other words consumption of dairy is associated with increased estrogen levels & meat with more estrogen being bioavailable via lower SHGB.
From Medical News Today: “High levels of estrogen can cause a variety of symptoms & may increase the risk of developing certain medical conditions … weight gain … menstrual problems … fatigue … low sex drive … erectile dysfunction … gynecomastia … infertility … thyroid diseases, blood clots, heart attack, stroke, breast cancer, ovarian cancer … depression … obesity … liver disease …” 
 “Consumption of animal products, their nutrient components and postmenopausal circulating steroid hormone concentrations”, Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;64(2):176-83; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904296
 “What are the symptoms of high estrogen?” – www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323280.php
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The Journal of Chromatography: “Increased levels of estrogen metabolites (EM) are associated with cancers of the reproductive system. One potential dietary source of EM is milk. In this study, the absolute quantities of unconjugated (free) and unconjugated plus conjugated (total) EM were measured in a variety of commercial milks (whole, 2%, skim, and buttermilk).
The results show that the milk products tested contain considerable levels of EM; however, the levels of unconjugated EM in skim milk were substantially lower than that observed in whole milk, 2% milk, and buttermilk. Whole milk contained the lowest overall levels of EM while buttermilk contained the highest.
As anticipated, soy milk did not contain the mammalian EM measured using this method.
The relatively high levels of catechol estrogens detected in milk products support the theory that milk consumption is a source of EM and their ingestion may have a dietary influence on cancer risk.”
Reference: “Quantitative measurement of endogenous estrogen metabolites, risk-factors for development of breast cancer, in commercial milk products by LC-MS/MS.” J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 May 1;877(13):1327-34; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217359
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Dairy Milk & Premature Sexual Development in Children:
Dr Greger clip: “Dairy & Sexual Precocity.”
Summary: “The effects of the hormones in cow’s milk on men and prepubescent children.”
Excerpt: “We’ve known for over a decade that women who eat meat have the highest levels of estrogenic hormones in their bloodstream, and vegans the lowest…
there’s been a dramatic increase in estrogen-dependent malignant diseases, such as ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer, and prostate cancer...
Especially for prepubescent children, there is particular concern about exposure to exogenous estrogens in commercial milk produced from pregnant cows…
This is what happened to the men. The levels of the pregnancy estrogen estrone started to shoot up 60% within an hour of drinking the milk. And their testosterone levels significantly dropped.
You know, there are men who don’t want to drink soy milk because they have an irrational fear of phytoestrogens—even though soy does not have feminizing effects on men. Yet they’re perfectly willing to drink cow’s milk, which has actual estrogen estrogens in it!…
What about the children? Same thing, but even more dramatic… Within one hour of drinking cow’s milk, the level of sex steroid hormones in their little bodies more than triples…
Recent surveys on the onset of puberty show an alarming trend of earlier sexual maturation in girls. During this same time period, exposure to exogenous (meaning external) estrogens, through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows, has spread around the world. They think that this intake of pregnant cow’s milk is one of the major causes of early sexual maturation in young children…”
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In 2010 Pediatrics International reported a study on how consuming dairy milk alters people’s hormones: “After the intake of cow milk, serum estrone (E1) and progesterone concentrations significantly increased, and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone significantly decreased in men. Urine concentrations of E1, estradiol, estriol and pregnanediol significantly increased in all adults and children. In four out of five women, ovulation occurred during the milk intake, and the timing of ovulation was similar among the three menstrual cycles.”
Their conclusion: “The present data on men and children indicate that estrogens in milk were absorbed, and gonadotropin secretion was suppressed, followed by a decrease in testosterone secretion. Sexual maturation of prepubertal children could be affected by the ordinary intake of cow milk.”
Reference: “Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows”, Pediatrics International, 2010 Feb;52(1):33-8; at
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Dairy Milk Interfering with Hormones in Men:
“Is Milk Responsible for Male Reproductive Disorders?” That’s the title of a report in science journal Medical Hypotheses. The summary states: “The role of environmental compounds with estrogenic activity in the development of male reproductive disorders has been a source of great concern. Among the routes of human exposure to estrogens, we are particularly concerned about cows’ milk, which contains considerable amounts of estrogens. The major sources of animal-derived estrogens in the human diet are milk and dairy products, which account for 60-70% of the estrogens consumed. Humans consume milk obtained from heifers in the latter half of pregnancy, when the estrogen levels in cows are markedly elevated. The milk that we now consume may be quite unlike that consumed 100 years ago. Modern genetically-improved dairy cows, such as the Holstein, are usually fed a combination of grass and concentrates (grain/protein mixes and various by-products), allowing them to lactate during the latter half of pregnancy, even at 220 days of gestation. We hypothesize that milk is responsible, at least in part, for some male reproductive disorders.”
Reference: “Is milk responsible for male reproductive disorders?”, Medical Hypotheses, 2001 Oct;57(4):510-4; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11601881
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A study reported in the Human Reproduction science journal states: “We found that intake of full-fat dairy was inversely related to sperm motility and morphology.” In other words lower sperm quality is associated with higher consumption of saturated animal fats. Specifically they stated: “These associations were driven primarily by intake of cheese and were independent of overall dietary patterns.”
Reference: “Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men”, Human Reproduction, 2013 Aug;28(8):2265-75; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670169
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See this link for a page with more reports on how the consumption of saturated animal fats is associated with higher rates of infertility and other reproductive disorders.
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Chemical Contaminants in Dairy:
Dr Greger clip: “Industrial Carcinogens in Animal Fat.”
Summary: “The buildup of industrial toxins in the meat and dairy supply may, in part, account for the relationship between animal fat consumption and disease.”
Excerpt: “The Harvard Nurses Study. Eat lots of dairy, and double our risk of a heart attack. Or, feed our kids lots of dairy, and triple their risk of colorectal cancer 65 years later. More dairy, more prostate cancer. More testicular cancer. More Parkinson’s disease—all, again, published within about a 12-month period. And this is no fluke. Every single forward-looking study in history on Parkinson’s and dairy found that the more dairy products people consume, the higher their risk of getting Parkinson’s…”
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A 2011 report in Prevention magazine is titled “The Dirty Dozen – Contaminated Foods.” Some excerpts: “FDA and USDA research shows high levels of pesticide and chemicals in these commonly contaminated foods… The chemical pesticides detected in these studies are known to cause cancer, birth defects, nervous system and brain damage, and developmental problems in children…
1. Beef, Pork and Poultry. The EPA reports that meat is contaminated with higher levels of pesticides than any plant food. Many chemical pesticides are fat-soluble and accumulate in the fatty tissue of animals. Animal feed that contains animal products compounds the accumulation, which is directly passed to the human consumer.
Antibiotics, drugs, and hormones are a standard in animal husbandry, all of which accumulate and are passed on to consumers as well. Ocean fish carry a higher risk for heavy metals than pesticides, though many freshwater fish are exposed to high levels of pesticides from contaminated water.
2. Milk, Cheese and Butter. For reasons similar to those for meat, the fat in dairy products poses a high risk for contamination by pesticides. Animals concentrate pesticides and chemicals in their milk and meat. Growth hormones and antibiotics are also serious concerns and are invariably found in commercial milk, cheese, and butter…”
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A 2006 report on contamination of foods by “dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs” states “Dairy products (mainly cheese) were the main contributor to the intake of PCDD/Fs (89%), while fish/seafood and meat have more or less the same percent share (5.4%)…”
Reference: “Dietary intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, due to the consumption of dairy products, fish/seafood and meat from Ismailia city, Egypt”, Sci Total Environ. 2006 Oct 15;370(1):1-8; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16806402
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Regards contamination of dairy with pesticides: “We found the DDT metabolite p,p′-DDE most frequently, in 23 of 31 different foods … We found high levels in other foods with high fat content: cream cheese (5.7 ng/g ww), butter (5.1 ng/g), American cheese (4.8 ng/g ww), salmon (3.5 ng/g ww), and canned sardines (2.8 ng/g ww) …
fish usually was highly contaminated …”
Reference: “Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA”; Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun; 118(6): 796–802. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2898856/
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Other Reports on Illness & Disease Conditions Linked to Consuming Dairy Products:
Harvard School of Public Health article “Should You Get Calcium from Milk?” Some excerpts: “When most people in the United States think of calcium, they immediately think of milk. But should this be so? Milk is actually only one of many sources of calcium—dark leafy green vegetables and some types of legumes are among the other sources—and there are some important reasons why milk may not be the best source for everyone.
These reasons include the following:
Many people have some degree of lactose intolerance. For them, eating or drinking dairy products causes problems like cramping, bloating, gas, and diarrhea. These symptoms can range from mild to severe. Certain groups are much more likely to have lactose intolerance. For example, 90 percent of Asians, 70 percent of blacks and Native Americans, and 50 percent of Hispanics are lactose intolerant, compared to only about 15 percent of people of Northern European descent…
High Saturated Fat Content.
Many dairy products are high in saturated fats, and a high saturated fat intake is a risk factor for heart disease. And while it’s true that most dairy products are now available in fat-reduced or nonfat options… it’s often the same people who purchase these higher fat products who also purchase the low-fat dairy products, so it’s not clear that they’re making great strides in cutting back on their saturated fat consumption…
Possible Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer…
A recent pooled analysis of 12 prospective cohort studies, which included more than 500,000 women, found that women with high intakes of lactose—equivalent to that found in 3 cups of milk per day—had a modestly higher risk of ovarian cancer, compared to women with the lowest lactose intakes…
Probable Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer…
In a Harvard study of male health professionals, men who drank two or more glasses of milk a day were almost twice as likely to develop advanced prostate cancer as those who didn’t drink milk at all…
Clearly, although more research is needed, we cannot be confident that high milk or calcium intake is safe.”
Reference: “Calcium: What’s Best for Your Bones and Health?”
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A 2014 article by Dr Thomas Campbell MD titled “12 Frightening Facts About Milk” at http://nutritionstudies.org/12-frightening-facts-milk/
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“After 40+ years of medical practice, Dr. Michael Klaper, a leading authority on nutritional medicine, spells out his health concerns about human consumption of dairy products… includes numerous references from scientific studies…. In this free, 42-minute illustrated presentation…” at http://doctorklaper.com/webinars/dairy-doubts
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From “The Milk Letter – A Message to My Patients” by Robert M. Kradjian, MD, Breast Surgery Chief, Division of General Surgery, Seton Medical Centre. Excerpts: “I believe that there are three reliable sources of information. The first, and probably the best, is a study of nature. The second is to study the history of our own species. Finally we need to look at the world’s scientific literature on the subject of milk.
Let’s look at the scientific literature first. From 1988 to 1993 there were over 2,700 articles dealing with milk recorded in the “Medicine” archives. Fifteen hundred of theses had milk as the main focus of the article. There is no lack of scientific information on this subject. I reviewed over 500 of the 1,500 articles, discarding articles that dealt exclusively with animals, esoteric research and inconclusive studies.
How would I summarize the articles? They were only slightly less than horrifying. First of all, none of the authors spoke of cow’s milk as an excellent food, free of side effects and the “perfect food” as we have been led to believe by the industry. The main focus of the published reports seems to be on intestinal colic, intestinal irritation, intestinal bleeding, anemia, allergic reactions in infants and children as well as infections such as salmonella. More ominous is the fear of viral infection with bovine leukemia virus or an AIDS-like virus as well as concern for childhood diabetes. Contamination of milk by blood and white (pus) cells as well as a variety of chemicals and insecticides was also discussed. Among children the problems were allergy, ear and tonsillar infections, bedwetting, asthma, intestinal bleeding, colic and childhood diabetes. In adults the problems seemed centered more around heart disease and arthritis, allergy, sinusitis, and the more serious questions of leukemia, lymphoma and cancer…”
From article at http://www.rense.com/general29/milkt.htm
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Dairy Products Associated with Inflammation & Sickness from Exposure to Hormones & Antibiotics?
From a 2013 article titled “The Dangers Of Dairy” by Dr. Amy Myers MD, some excerpts: “The truth is, dairy can lead to countless health issues and, for many, can cause more harm than good, here’s why. It’s highly inflammatory.
Dairy is one of the most inflammatory foods in our modern diet, second only to gluten. It causes inflammation in a large percentage of the population, resulting in digestive issues such as bloating, gas, constipation, and diarrhea, as well as other symptoms including acne, and a stronger presentation of autistic behaviors…
It’s often full of hormones and antibiotics:
Many times when people drink milk they’re consuming far more than just milk. American dairy farmers have long been injecting cows with a genetically engineered bovine growth hormone called rBGH to increase milk production. This forced increase in milk production often leads to an udder infection in cows called mastitis, which is then treated with courses of antibiotics, which can make their way into your dairy products…”
– Reference: http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-8646/the-dangers-of-dairy.html
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From a 2012 article titled “Harvard Declares Dairy NOT Part of Healthy Diet” some excerpts: “The Harvard School of Public Health sent a strong message to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and nutrition experts everywhere with the recent release of its “Healthy Eating Plate” food guide. The university was responding to the USDA’s new MyPlate guide for healthy eating, which replaced the outdated and misguided food pyramid.
Harvard’s nutrition experts did not pull punches, declaring that the university’s food guide was based on sound nutrition research and more importantly, not influenced by food industry lobbyists. The greatest evidence of its research focus is the absence of dairy products from the “Healthy Eating Plate” based on Harvard’s assessment that “…high intake [of dairy] can increase the risk of prostate cancer and possibly ovarian cancer.” The Harvard experts also referred to the high levels of saturated fat in most dairy products and suggested that collards, bok choy, fortified soy milk, and baked beans are safer choices than dairy for obtaining calcium, as are high quality supplements…”
Article at https://www.care2.com/greenliving/harvard-declares-dairy-not-part-of-healthy-diet.html with reference to https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-eating-plate/
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From an article titled “Understanding the Problems with Dairy Products” by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, some excerpts: “Many Americans, including some vegetarians, still consume large amounts of dairy products. Here are eight great reasons to eliminate dairy products from your diet.
1. Osteoporosis: Milk is touted for preventing osteoporosis, yet clinical research shows otherwise. The Harvard Nurses’ Health Study… showed no protective effect of increased milk consumption on fracture risk. In fact, increased intake of calcium from dairy products was associated with a higher fracture risk…
2. Cardiovascular Disease: Dairy products… contribute significant amounts of cholesterol and fat to the diet. Diets high in fat and saturated fat can increase the risk of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease…
3. Cancer: Several cancers, such as ovarian cancer, have been linked to the consumption of dairy products… Breast and prostate cancers have also been linked to consumption of dairy products…
4. Diabetes: Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I or childhood-onset) is linked to consumption of dairy products…
5. Lactose Intolerance: Lactose intolerance is common among many populations…
6. Vitamin D Toxicity…
7. Contaminants: Synthetic hormones… antibiotics… Pesticides and other drugs are also frequent contaminants of dairy products.
8. Health Concerns of Infants and Children: Milk proteins, milk sugar, fat, and saturated fat in dairy products may pose health risks for children and lead to the development of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and formation of athersclerotic plaques that can lead to heart disease… iron deficiency is more likely on a dairy-rich diet… Colic is an additional concern with milk consumption… A recent study also linked cow’s milk consumption to chronic constipation in children…”
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Dietary Calcium Not Actually Associated with Osteoporosis?
Regards bone health and hip fractures an 18 year prospective analysis of 72,337 postmenopausal women concluded: “An adequate vitamin D intake is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in postmenopausal women. Neither milk nor a high-calcium diet appears to reduce risk.”
Specifically: “Women consuming > or = 12.5 microg vitamin D/d from food plus supplements had a 37% lower risk of hip fracture (RR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94) than did women consuming < 3.5 microg/d. Total calcium intake was not associated with hip fracture risk… Milk consumption was also not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture…”
Reference: “Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003 Feb;77(2):504-11; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12540414
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The conclusion from a 2015 British Medical Journal (BMJ) study states: “Dietary calcium intake is not associated with risk of fracture, and there is no clinical trial evidence that increasing calcium intake from dietary sources prevents fractures. Evidence that calcium supplements prevent fractures is weak and inconsistent.”
Reference: “Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review”, BMJ 2015; 351:h4580; http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h4580
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Another 2015 British Medical Journal (BMJ) report states: “Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD [bone mineral density], which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture.”
Reference: “Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis”, BMJ, 2015 Sep 29;351:h4183; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26420598
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The Harvard School of Public Health: “studies suggest that high calcium intake doesn’t actually appear to lower a person’s risk for osteoporosis. For example, in the large Harvard studies of male health professionals and female nurses, individuals who drank one glass of milk (or less) per week were at no greater risk of breaking a hip or forearm than were those who drank two or more glasses per week. (2, 3) When researchers combined the data from the Harvard studies with other large prospective studies, they still found no association between calcium intake and fracture risk. (4) Also, the combined results of randomized trials that compared calcium supplements with a placebo showed that calcium supplements did not protect against fractures of the hip or other bones. Moreover, there was some suggestion that calcium supplements taken without vitamin D might even increase the risk of hip fractures. A 2014 study also showed that higher milk consumption during teenage years was not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in older adults. (27)
Additional evidence further supports the idea that American adults may not need as much calcium as is currently recommended. For example, in countries such as India, Japan, and Peru where average daily calcium intake is as low as 300 milligrams per day (less than a third of the U.S. recommendation for adults, ages 19 to 50), the incidence of bone fractures is quite low. Of course, these countries differ in other important bone-health factors as well—such as level of physical activity and amount of sunlight—which could account for their low fracture rates…”
From an article titled “Calcium: What’s Best for Your Bones and Health?” at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/calcium-full-story/
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Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine: “calcium intake alone does not protect against osteoporosis and fractures, nor do low calcium intakes predict fracture risk. A 1992 review of fracture rates in many different countries showed that populations with the lowest calcium intakes had far fewer fractures than those with much higher intakes. For example, South African blacks had a very low average daily calcium intake—only 196 milligrams—yet their a fracture incidence was only 6.8 per 100,000 person-years, far below that of either black or white Americans, whose incidence rates were 60.4 and 118.3 per 100,000 person-years, respectively.
A possible explanation for this apparent contradiction is that countries with high calcium intakes also tend to have high protein intakes…
The Harvard Nurses’ Health Study of 77,761 women, aged 34 to 59 followed for 12 years, found that those who drank three or more glasses of milk per day had NO reduction in the risk of hip or arm fractures compared to those who drank little or no milk, even after adjustment for weight, menopausal status, smoking, and alcohol use. In fact, the fracture rates were slightly, but significantly, higher for those who consumed this much milk, compared to those who drank little or no milk…”
Source: “Preventing and Reversing Osteoporosis” at http://www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/preventing-and-reversing-osteoporosis
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Click this link for a page with reports on the health benefits of obtaining calcium from healthy plant-based diets.
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Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine: “Increasing dietary calcium does not prevent bone fractures, according to two meta-analyses published in the British Medical Journal… An additional editorial called for more research to de-emphasize high intakes of calcium without the evidence to support them. The author recommends health organizations reconsider the evidence to produce more practical guidelines free from marketing bias and that minimize side effects.”
Source: “Increased Dietary Calcium Intake Not Linked to Fracture Prevention”, October 1, 2015 – http://www.pcrm.org/health/medNews/increased-calcium-not-linked-to-fracture-prevention
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Short Video Clips on the Problems with Dairy:
Video by Cracked.com titled “If Milk Commercials Were Honest – Honest Ads” at
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TED talk “The Magnificent Milk Myth … Debunked” is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sGXeX7PPrCI … “Brooke Miles, a former-dairy-fanatic-turned-vegan, is a humorous writer and a sought-after, award-winning speaker… While Brooke doesn’t expect to convert the world to veganism, she aims to educate people on nutritional choices through a light-hearted approach.”
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More to come!!
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This set of articles were compiled for
Main Pages on this Site:
Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.
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Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.
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Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.
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Excerpts & links to articles in news media science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.
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This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.
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This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.
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This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.
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Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.
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Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.
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A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”
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For Archives of Related Memes see:
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This site’s original 2012 page with excerpts from articles in science journals and news media about how what we choose to eat can: i) accelerate or slow down climate change and the related environmental catastrophes we face; and ii) increase or reduce our risks for chronic illness and disease. The evidence and body of opinion against the animal agriculture livestock industry is particularly compelling and damning.
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