1: Quotes & Links to Many Reports in Science Journals on the Association of Meat Consumption with Higher Rates of Cancer, Heart Disease, Stroke, Diabetes & Mortality (Death).
Science Studies: Red Meat Consumption Associated with Higher Rates of Mortality ie. Increased Death Rates, a Shortened Life Span.
A study of 536,969 people reported in the British Medical Journal in 2017 states: “Conclusions: The results show increased risks of all cause mortality and death due to nine different causes associated with both processed and unprocessed red meat, accounted for, in part, by heme iron and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat…”
Reference: “Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study”, BMJ 2017; 357; at http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1957
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“Is Meat Killing Us?” is the title of a 2014 report in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Excerpts: “Does Meat Consumption Increase Mortality? In a 2014 meta-analysis and systematic review… reviewed 9 prospective cohort studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and China. They evaluated the association of processed meat (eg, bacon, sausage, salami, hot dogs, ham), unprocessed red meat (eg, uncured, unsalted beef; pork; lamb; game), and total red meat with all-cause mortality in more than 1 million people over follow-up periods ranging from 5.5 to 28 years. All-cause mortality for the highest vs lowest category of processed meat and total red meat intake was statistically significant (RR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.17-1.28] and RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.21-1.35], respectively). Unprocessed red meat consumption increased all-cause mortality in the US cohorts (RR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.17-1.30])… In addition, the steepest increase in mortality was found at the smallest increases of intake from the reference ranges of 0.6 g/d (0.02 oz/d) of processed meat and 13.9 g/d (0.49 oz/d) of total red meat, indicating that even a small amount of meat may have an impact on mortality risk…”
Reference: “Is Meat Killing Us?”, The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, May 2016, Vol. 116, 296-300; at http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2517494
From a related news report: “A study has shown going vegetarian for at least 17 years can extend your life expectancy by 3.6 years. Eating meat, especially red and processed meats, was linked to higher mortality rates… death from all causes was higher for those who regularly eat meat…” at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/08/vegetarians-live-four-years-longer-according-to-experts/
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The British Journal of Nutrition reports on a study covering 1,674,272 individuals: “Subjects in the highest category of processed meat consumption had 22 and 18 % higher risk of mortality from any cause and CVD [Cardiovascular Disease], respectively. Red meat consumption was found to be associated with a 16 % higher risk of CVD mortality… In the dose-response meta-analysis, an increase of 50 g/d in processed meat intake was found to be positively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, while an increase of 100 g/d in red meat intake was found to be positively associated with CVD mortality… The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that processed meat consumption could increase the risk of mortality from any cause and CVD…”
Reference: “Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies”, Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep 14;112(5):762-75. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400124X. Epub 2014 Jun 16; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24932617
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From a 2016 study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine: “The study population included… half a million people aged 50 to 71 years at baseline… Men and women in the highest vs lowest quintile of red… and processed meat… intakes had elevated risks for overall mortality... men and women had elevated risks for cancer mortality for red… and processed meat… cardiovascular disease risk was elevated for men and women in the highest quintile of red… and processed meat… CONCLUSION: Red and processed meat intakes were associated with modest increases in total mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular disease mortality.”
Reference: “Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people”, Archives Internal Medicine, 2009 March 23;169(6):562-71; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19307518
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From a 2012 article by Harvard Medical School titled “Cutting red meat-for a longer life” some excerpts:
“Red meat: in addition to raising the risk for colorectal cancer and other health problems, it can actually shorten your life. That’s the clear message of the latest research based on data from two ongoing, decades-long Harvard School of Public Health studies of nurses and other health professionals… “This study provides clear evidence that regular consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, contributes substantially to premature death,” according to Dr. Frank Hu, one of the senior scientists involved in the study and a professor of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health…
The populations scrutinized included about 84,000 women from the Nurses’ Health Study and 38,000 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
People in the study who ate the most red meat tended to die younger, and to die more often from cardiovascular disease and cancer. These people also tended to weigh more, exercise less, smoke tobacco more, and drink more alcohol than healthier people in the study. Yet even when the researchers compensated for the effects of unhealthy lifestyle, mortality and meat remained associated…
The study determined that each additional daily serving of red meat increased risk of death by 13%. The impact rose to 20% if the serving was processed, as in food items like hot dogs, bacon, and cold cuts…”
Article is at https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/cutting-red-meat-for-a-longer-life
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Regards a study on meat consumption and higher rates of dying (mortality) the American Journal of Epidemiology reports: “These results indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, may increase all-cause mortality.” Specifically, “The summary relative risks of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest category of consumption were”: 1.10 for unprocessed red meat; 1.23 for processed meat; 1.29 for total red meat.
Reference: “Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis”, American Journal of Epidemiology, 2014 Feb 1;179(3):282-9; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24148709
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“One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes…”
From a 2016 report in the journal Molecular Aspects of Medicine at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27421909
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A 2016 report of 150,328 deaths concluded: “The present meta-analysis indicates that higher consumption of total red meat and processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.”
Specifically: “For processed meat, the pooled relative risk with an increase of one serving per day was 1·15 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) for all-cause mortality (five studies; P<0·001 for linear trend), 1·15 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·24) for cardiovascular mortality (six studies; P<0·001) and 1·08 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·11) for cancer mortality (five studies; P<0·001). Similar associations were found with total meat intake. The association between unprocessed red meat consumption and mortality risk was found in the US populations, but not in European or Asian populations.”
Reference: “Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, Public Health Nutrition, 2016 Apr;19(5):893-905; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26143683
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Study Finds Higher Rates of Death (Mortality) in People Who Eat the Most Red Meat Regardless of their Fruit & Vegetable Consumption.
The American Journal for Clinical Nutrition reported in 2016: “High red meat consumption is associated with a shorter survival and higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with a longer survival and lower mortality risk.” The purpose of their study of 74,645 people was “to determine whether the association between red meat consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer-specific mortality differs across amounts of FV intake.” They found that “Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of total red meat consumption, those in the highest quintile had a 21% increased risk of all-cause mortality… a 29% increased risk of CVD mortality… Results were remarkably similar across amounts of FV consumption, and no interaction between red meat and FV consumption was detected.”
Their conclusion: “High intakes of red meat were associated with a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. The increased risks were consistently observed in participants with low, medium, and high FV consumption.”
Reference: “High red meat intake and all-cause cardiovascular and cancer mortality: is the risk modified by fruit and vegetable intake?”, American Journal for Clinical Nutrition, 2016 Oct;104(4):1137-1143; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557655
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The WHO statement on Meat Consumption and Higher Rates of Cancer.
In 2015: “The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, has evaluated the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat…
The IARC Working Group considered more than 800 studies that investigated associations of more than a dozen types of cancer with the consumption of red meat or processed meat in many countries and populations with diverse diets…
Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans that the consumption of processed meat causes colorectal cancer…
The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%…
After thoroughly reviewing the accumulated scientific literature, a Working Group of 22 experts from 10 countries convened by the IARC Monographs Programme classified the consumption of red meat as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A)…
This association was observed mainly for colorectal cancer, but associations were also seen for pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer…
Red meat refers to all types of mammalian muscle meat, such as beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, and goat. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to enhance flavour or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but processed meats may also contain other red meats, poultry, offal, or meat by-products such as blood. Examples of processed meat include hot dogs (frankfurters), ham, sausages, corned beef, and biltong or beef jerky as well as canned meat and meat-based preparations and sauces…”
Reference Link: http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2015/pdfs/pr240_E.pdf
American Cancer Society lists Meat Consumption as Carcinogenic; a Cancer-causing activity.
The website of the American Cancer Society lists the consumption of processed meat and red meat on its page titled “Known and Probable Human Carcinogens”. Processed meat is listed under the category of “Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans.” Red Meat is listed in the category of “Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans.”
The page states “this document provides lists of substances and exposures that are known or suspected to cause cancer. The lists below have been developed by two highly respected agencies – the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Toxicology Program (NTP)…” Reference: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/general-info/known-and-probable-human-carcinogens.html
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“Red meat products, especially those that have been processed, have a wide variety of carcinogenic molecules known to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Thus, the outcome of this review is consistent with the recent findings of WHO.” That’s the conclusion of a study published in the Journal of Gastroenterology (2017) at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27913919
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Eating Red Meat Associated with Higher Rates of Coronary Heart Disease:
Regards Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) the journal of the American Heart Association reports: “These data suggest that high red meat intake increases risk of CHD… in age-adjusted analyses, animal protein was associated with increased risk, and vegetable protein was associated with decreased risk… higher intakes of red meat, red meat excluding processed meat, and high-fat dairy were significantly associated with elevated risk of CHD… 1 serving per day of dairy products was associated with an increased risk… nuts, and beans were associated with decreased risk… 1 serving per day of nuts was associated with a 30%… lower risk of CHD compared with 1 serving per day of red meat… ” The study was of 84,136 women with “2,050,071 person-years of follow-up from 1980 through 2006”.
Reference: “Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women”, Circulation, 2010 Aug 31;122(9):876-83 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713902 and http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/9/876
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A 2010 report in Circulation, a medical science journal, regards a meta-analysis of “20 studies” covering “1,218,380 individuals” concluded: “Consumption of processed meats… is associated with higher incidence of CHD [coronary heart disease] and diabetes mellitus…” More specifically it found “processed meat intake was associated with 42% higher risk of CHD (n=5; relative risk per 50-g serving per day=1.42…) and 19% higher risk of diabetes mellitus…”
Reference: “Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, Circulation, 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2271-83; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479151
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Regards coronary heart disease (CHD) and haem iron (which is obtained by eating animals) the European Heart Journal reports a study of 16,136 women: “High dietary haem iron intake was associated with a 65% increase in CHD risk… The results indicate that middle-aged women with a relatively high haem iron intake have an increased risk of CHD.”
Reference: “Dietary haem iron and coronary heart disease in women”, European Heart Journal, 2005 Feb;26(3):257-62; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15618055
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Increased Risk of Stroke from Eating Red and Processed Meats:
Regards meat consumption and stroke an analysis of 239,251 subjects concluded: “Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat increase risk of stroke, in particular, ischemic stroke.”
Specifically: “Comparing the highest category of consumption with lowest category, the pooled relative risks (RRs) of total stroke were 1.15… for total meat (red and processed meat combined) (n=4), 1.09… for red meat (n=5) and 1.14… for processed meat (n=5); the corresponding RRs of ischemic stroke (highest vs lowest quintile) were 1.15 [total meat]…, 1.13 [red meat]… and 1.19 [processed meat]…
In the dose-response analysis, the risk of stroke increased significantly by 10% and 13% for each 100 g per day increment in total and red meat consumption, respectively, and by 11% for each 50 g per day increment in processed meat consumption.”
Reference: “Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies”, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2013 Jan;67(1):91-5; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23169473
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A 2016 report on 2,079,236 people by The Official Journal of the National Stroke Association concluded: “Our findings indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed red meat, will increase the risk of stroke.”
Specifically: “Total red meat consumption was associated with total stroke (RR = 1.14…), cerebral infarction (RR = 1.13…), and ischemic stroke (RR = 1.22…). A significant association was found between consumption of processed red meat and total stroke (RR = 1.17…). Consumption of fresh red meat was significantly associated with total stroke (RR = 1.13…) and ischemic stroke (RR = 1.15…)… A significant risk for total stroke could be observed when the consumption of total red meat was above 50 g/day, processed red meat was just above 0 g/day, and fresh red meat was above 70 g/day.”
Note: “RR” means “relative risks”.
Reference: “Red Meat Consumption and the Risk of Stroke: A Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies”, Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2016 May;25(5):1177-1186; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935118
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Eating Meat Associated with Higher Risk of Increased Cancer Rates.
A 2007 article in the PLoS Medicine journal is titled: “Meat Consumption and Cancer Risk.” The authors state: “The large international variation in incidence rates of cancer, together with findings from migrant studies, suggest that environmental factors such as diet are associated with cancer risk… it has been estimated that approximately 35% (range 10%–70%) of cancer can be attributed to diet, similar in magnitude to the contribution of smoking to cancer… Meat consumption in relation to cancer risk has been reported in over a hundred epidemiological studies from many countries with diverse diets…”
Reference: PLoS Med. 2007 Dec; 4(12): e345 – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2121650/
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“Red and processed meat is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC)… In this population-based case–control study… Red and processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal (>1 time/day vs ≤1 time/week odds ratios 1.66, 95% CI 1.34–2.07), colon and rectal cancer…. These results support an association between red and processed meat and CRC risk…” Excerpt from a study reported in the European Journal of Epidemiology (2017) at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10654-017-0275-6
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“Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The vast majority of CRC cases have been linked to environmental causes rather than to heritable genetic changes. Over the last decades, epidemiological evidence linking the consumption of red and, more convincingly, of processed red meat to CRC has accumulated… This review first briefly summarizes the development of CRC followed by an in-depth overview and critical discussion of the different potential carcinogenic mechanisms underlying the increased CRC risk associated with the consumption of red and processed red meat.” From a 2016 report in the science journal Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25975275
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“Epidemiology and experimental studies provide an overwhelming support of the notion that diets high in red or processed meat accompany an elevated risk of developing pre-neoplastic colorectal adenoma and frank colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The underlying mechanisms are disputed; thus several hypotheses have been proposed. A large body of reports converges, however, on haem and nitrosyl haem as major contributors to the CRC development, presumably acting through various mechanisms…” From a 2016 report in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25849747
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Reports on Higher Rates of Stomach Gastric Cancer associated with eating Red & Processed Meats like Bacon:
A 2006 study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reports: “RESULTS: Six prospective cohort studies (involving 2209 stomach cancer patients) and nine case-control studies (2495 case patients) were eligible for inclusion… The estimated summary relative risks of stomach cancer for an increase in processed meat consumption of 30 g/day, approximately half of an average serving, were 1.15… for the cohort studies and 1.38… for the case-control studies… In three cohort and four case-control studies that examined the association between bacon consumption and stomach cancer, the summary relative risk was 1.37… for the highest versus lowest intake categories of bacon…
CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer. However, the possibility that the association may be confounded or modified by other factors cannot be ruled out.”
Reference: “Processed meat consumption and stomach cancer risk: a meta-analysis”, J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Aug 2;98(15):1078-87; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16882945
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Regards meat consumption and gastric stomach cancer the medical journal Oncotarget reported in 2017 – “The summary relative risks of highest versus lowest consumption were”: 1.67 for red meat; and 1.76 for processed meat; regards case-control studies.
Reference: “Red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, Oncotarget. 2017 May 2;8(18):30563-30575; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28430644
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From a 2006 report in the British Journal of Nutrition: “We have examined the current scientific evidence on the relationship between nutrition and the most frequent tumours in the Spanish population…” Regards eating animals is states: “Consumption of red and processed meat is positively associated with [higher rates of] colorectal cancer and probably with stomach cancer. Animal fat is possibly associated with colorectal cancer and probably with prostate and breast cancer…”
Regards plant foods: “Consumption of fruit is negatively associated with [meaning lower rates of] cancer of the lung and stomach, possibly with colorectal cancer, but probably not with prostate cancer and breast cancer. Consumption of vegetables probably reduces the risk of colorectal and stomach cancer, but probably is not associated with cancer of the lung, prostate and breast…”
Reference: “Nutrition and cancer: the current epidemiological evidence”, Br J Nutr., 2006 Aug;96 Suppl 1:S42-5; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923250
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See this link for more reports on the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with lower rates of degenerative diseases – another page on this site.
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Regards Red Meat and Cancer a 2012 report in The British Journal of Nutrition concludes “high intakes of red meat and Na [sodium] were significant risk factors of cancer… we found that the combined effects of dietary risk factors on overall cancer risk were greater than the individual effects…”
The study covered 26,815 people. Specific findings include “The risk of cancer in male was significantly increased among individuals who consumed at least 43 g red meat/d (or 300 g/week) compared with those who ate less than 43 g/d (or 300 g/week) (HR 1·41, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·94; P= 0·0382) after adjusting for confounding variables.”
The following hazard ratios (HR) were noted:
– 1.80 for cancer in “subjects older than or equal to 50 years of age”
– 1.41 for red meat consumption, Na intake and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) in men
– 2.34 for gastric cancer
– 1.56 for thyroid cancer
Reference: “Red meat consumption is associated with an increased overall cancer risk: a prospective cohort study in Korea”, The British Journal of Nutrition, 2014 Jul 28;112(2):238-47; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24775061 and full article at https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/red-meat-consumption-is-associated-with-an-increased-overall-cancer-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-korea/B2B06A289E35D59DDC99A0C6DB12B72E/core-reader
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Report on Red & White Meat Consumption and Higher Rates of Kidney Renal Cancers:
Regards a 2015 report in the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research: “University of Texas Study Links Meat to Kidney Cancer: Another study has shown people who eat more meat have a high risk of cancer. This time, it’s kidney cancer, researchers reported Monday.
And it’s not just people who eat red meat, as many other studies have shown. People who eat more so-called white meat, such as chicken, have the higher risk, too…
People who said they ate the most grilled meat — red meat and chicken alike — had a higher risk of kidney cancer, they reported in the journal Cancer.”
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A 2016 report in The American Journal of Cancer states: “Meat-cooking mutagens, including heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are formed as a result of meat cooking, preparation, and level of doneness and may increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC)… Dietary intake of the mutagenic compounds 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC…
Conclusions: Intake of meat may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds MeIQx and PhIP…”
Reference: “Gene-environment interaction of genome-wide association study-identified susceptibility loci and meat-cooking mutagens in renal cell carcinoma etiology”, Cancer. 2016 Jan 1; 122(1): 108–115 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016565/
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Reports on Meat Consumption and Higher Rates of Colon, Prostate, Pancreatic & Bladder Cancers:
From a 1999 study reported in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition: “Results associating diet with chronic disease in a cohort of 34,192 California Seventh-day Adventists are summarized… Cancers of the colon and prostate were significantly more likely in NON-vegetarians… and frequent beef consumers also had higher risk of bladder cancer. Intake of legumes was negatively associated with risk of colon cancer in nonvegetarians and risk of pancreatic cancer. Higher consumption of all fruit or dried fruit was associated with lower risks of lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers…”
Reference: “Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists”, Am J Clin Nutr September 1999, vol. 70 no. 3 532s-538s – http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/70/3/532s.full
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Regards cancer of the pancreas a 2012 meta-analysis in the British Journal of Cancer concludes: “Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that processed meat consumption is positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Red meat consumption was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men…”
Specifically: “Eleven prospective studies, with 6643 pancreatic cancer cases, were included in the meta-analysis. An increase in red meat consumption of 120 g per day was associated with an overall relative risk (RR) of 1.13… Red meat consumption was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk in men (RR=1.29…)… The RR of pancreatic cancer for a 50 g per day increase in processed meat consumption was 1.19…”
Reference: “Red and processed meat consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: meta-analysis of prospective studies”, British Journal of Cancer, 2012 Jan 31;106(3):603-7; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22240790
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Regards meat consumption and pancreatic cancer the American Gastroenterological Association reported in 2017 a study of over 6 million people – the conclusion: “In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found case-control but not cohort studies to associate consumption of red and processed meat with risk of pancreatic cancer. However, in cohort studies, consumption of red and processed meat appeared to increase risk of pancreatic cancer in men but not in women.”
More specifically: “In cohort studies, a 100 g/day increase in red meat consumption was associated with significant increase in risk of pancreatic cancer (P = .01)…”
Reference: “Association Between Consumption of Red and Processed Meat and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2017 Apr;15(4):486-493.e10; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27693521
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Regards cancer of the bladder a 2012 study in the journal Medical Oncology reports: “high red and processed meat consumer had a significantly increased 17 and 10% risk, respectively, when comparing the highest with the lowest category of meat intake…” The report was a meta analysis of 10 cohort studies and 11 case-control studies.
Reference: “Meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis”, Medical Oncology, 2012 Jun;29(2):848-55; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24395380
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Reports on Meat Consumption and Higher Rates for Cancers of the Esophagus, Colon, Rectum, Liver & Lung:
From a 2007 article in the PLOS Medicine journal: “Red meat and processed meat have been associated with carcinogenesis at several anatomic sites… We investigated whether red or processed meat intake increases cancer risk at a variety of sites… The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study is a cohort of approximately 500,000 people aged 50–71 y at baseline… Statistically significant elevated risks (ranging from 20% to 60%) were evident for esophageal, colorectal, liver, and lung cancer, comparing individuals in the highest with those in the lowest quintile of red meat intake. Furthermore, individuals in the highest quintile of processed meat intake had a 20% elevated risk for colorectal and a 16% elevated risk for lung cancer…
Conclusions: Both red and processed meat intakes were positively associated with cancers of the colorectum and lung; furthermore, red meat intake was associated with an elevated risk for cancers of the esophagus and liver.”
Reference: “A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk”, PLoS Medicine, 2007 Dec; 4(12): e325 – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2121107/
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Lung Cancer journal reports: “Consumption of red meat, was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer… while yellow-green vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer…”
Specifically: “When comparing the fifth (highest) to the first (lowest) quintile of consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, we obtained odds ratios of 2.0 (1.3-3.1), 3.0 (1.9-4.7), and 2.0 (1.3-3.0) respectively… while an odds ratio of 3.3 (1.7-7.6) was obtained for red meat. The odds ratios for red meat consumption were similar among adenocarcinoma cases, OR=3.0 (1.1-7.9) and non-adenocarcinoma cases, OR=3.2 (1.3-8.3) and among life-time nonsmokers and ex-smokers OR=2.8 (1.4-5.4), and current smokers, OR=4.9 (1.1-22.3). Yellow-green vegetables were protective with an odds ratio of 0.4.”
Reference: “Lung cancer risk and red meat consumption among Iowa women”, Lung Cancer, 2001 Oct;34(1):37-46.; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11557111
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Reports on Eating Meat and Higher Risk of Esophogeal Throat Cancer:
A 2014 report in the journal Digestive Diseases and Sciences concludes “Meat consumption is associated with esophageal cancer risk… High meat intake, especially processed meat, is likely to increase esophageal adenocarcinoma risk…” Specifically they found “The summary RRs [relative risks] for esophageal cancer for the highest versus lowest consumption categories were 1.19… for total meat, 1.55… for red meat, 1.33… for processed meat…”
Reference: “Meat consumption is associated with esophageal cancer risk in a meat- and cancer-histological-type dependent manner”, Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 2014 Mar;59(3):664-73; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24395380
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Regards esophageal (throat) cancer a 2013 study reported in Annals of Epidemiology concludes “Intake of red and processed meat may be associated with significantly increased risk of ESCC” meaning “esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.” The study of 6499 ESCC cases found that “Based on high versus low analysis, the summary relative risks of ESCC were 1.57… for red meat intake and 1.55… for processed meat intake…”
Reference: “Consumption of red and processed meat and risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma based on a meta-analysis”, Annals of Epidemiology, 2013 Dec;23(12):762-770.e1; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176821
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Science Journal Studies & Reports on the Consumption of Meat, Dairy Milk & Cheese and Higher Rates of Breast, Ovarian & Uterus Cancers:
A 2005 report in science journal Medical Hypotheses concluded “In conclusion, increased consumption of animal-derived food may have adverse effects on the development of hormone-dependent cancers.”
More specifically they stated: “The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers… with food intake… in 40 countries.
Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862).
Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767).
Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0.861)...
Among dietary risk factors, we are most concerned with milk and dairy products, because the milk we drink today is produced from pregnant cows, in which estrogen and progesterone levels are markedly elevated.”
Reference: “The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers”, Med Hypotheses, 2005;65(6):1028-37; at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987705003543
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Regards red meat consumption and breast cancer the British Medical Journal reported in 2014 a study of 88,803 women: “Higher intake of total red meat was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer overall (relative risk 1.22… for highest fifth v lowest fifth of intake)… In estimating the effects of exchanging different protein sources, substituting one serving/day of legumes for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer among all women… and a 19% lower risk among premenopausal women…”
Reference: “Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study”, BMJ. 2014 Jun 10;348:g3437; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24916719
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Regards breast cancer and red meat consumption the American Association for Cancer Research reported in 2008 a study of 39,268 women: “Compared with women in the lowest quintile of red meat intake during high school, the multivariate-adjusted RR [relative risks] for the highest quintile of intake was 1.34… A significant linear association was observed with every additional 100 g of red meat consumed per day (RR, 1.20…). This association was more pronounced in hormone receptor-positive tumors (RR, 1.36…)”
Reference: “Red meat consumption during adolescence among premenopausal women and risk of breast cancer”, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 2008 Aug;17(8):2146-51.; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18669582
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Regards the increased risks of breast cancer from eating red meat the International Journal of Cancer reported in 2015 a study of 44,231 women: “greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43…)… Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk.”
Reference: “Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk”, International Journal of Cancer, 2015 Apr 15;136(8):1909-20; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220168
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Regards breast cancer the Nutrients journal reported in 2016 on analysis of forty-six prospective studies. The conclusion: “Higher total red meat, fresh red meat, and processed meat intake may be risk factors for breast cancer, whereas higher soy food and skim milk intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer.”
The summary relative risks (RR) for highest versus lowest intakes were:
– 1.07 for processed meat
– 0.92 for soy food
– 0.93 for skim milk
– 0.90 for yogurt.
“Similar conclusions were obtained in dose-response association for each serving increase” of:
– 1.07 for total red meat
– 1.13 for fresh red meat
– 1.09 for processed meat
– 0.91 for soy food
– 0.96 for skim milk
Reference: “Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies”, Nutrients. 2016 Nov 17;8(11). pii: E730; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869663
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Click this link for a page with many science reports on the association of soy food and soy milk consumption with lower rates of several cancers and coronary heart disease and extended healthy lifespan.
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Regards cancer of the immune system a 2016 study concluded: “Foods of animal origin likely play a role in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma, with red meat and dairy tending to increase the risk… Our findings reinforce the recommendations to reduce the consumption of red meat by replacing it with vegetables, legumes and fish…” The study was a review of more than 20,000 cases from thirty-three independent studies.
Reference: “Food of animal origin and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma: A review of the literature and meta-analysis”, Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 2016 Apr;100:16-24; at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26921971
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A report by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States states: “A well known, epidemiologically reproducible risk factor for human carcinomas is the long-term consumption of “red meat” of mammalian origin…” excerpt from the introduction to an article titled: “A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression…”
Reference: “A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression”, PNAS, January 13, 2015 vol. 112 no. 2 – http://www.pnas.org/content/112/2/542.abstract
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Report on Red and White Meat Consumption as Risk Factors for Colon Cancer:
A 1998 study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology states: “The overall findings from this cohort identify both red meat intake and white meat intake as important dietary risk factors for colon cancer and raise the possibility that the risk due to red meat intake reflects a more complex etiology.”
Further notes about the study: “In a 6-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between diet and incident colon cancer among 32,051 non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study… A complex relation was identified whereby subjects exhibiting a high red meat intake, a low legume intake, and a high body mass experienced a more than threefold elevation in risk relative to all other patterns based on these variables… ”
Reference: “Dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer in a Low-risk Population”, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 148, Issue 8, 15 October 1998, Pages 761–774,; at https://academic.oup.com/aje/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009697
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Reports on Meat Consumption and Higher Rates of Type-2 Diabetes:
A 2014 article in the journal named Nutrients is titled “Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes”. It states: “In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic…
The Adventist Mortality Study included a baseline survey of 24,673 white Seventh-day Adventists living in California in 1960, revealing 40% and 80% higher prevalences of diabetes among meat-consuming women and men, respectively, compared with vegetarians… Diabetes prevalence increased as the frequency of meat consumption increased… Compared with those who avoided meat, the relative risk of having diabetes on a death certificate, adjusted for age, was 2.2 for meat-consuming men and 1.4 for meat-consuming women…
In a 17-year follow-up of 8401 individuals… who were free of diabetes at baseline, those who reported eating meat (defined as red meat, poultry, and fish) at least weekly at the study’s endpoint were 29% more likely to have developed diabetes, compared to those who reported no meat consumption at that time point…
The Adventist Health Study-2 included 60,903 Adventists… the odds ratio of a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes among meat consumers remained approximately twice that of individuals avoiding meat. Those who consumed meat less than once per week or who limited their meat consumption to fish also remained at elevated risk, albeit not so high as for those consuming all types of meat on a daily basis.
A 2-year follow-up period included 41,387 men and women. Compared with those eating meat more than once per week… risk of developing diabetes was significantly lower in vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and those consuming red meat or poultry less than once per week…
A 2011 meta-analysis… including 442,101 participants and 28,228 diabetes cases, showed that consumption of both unprocessed and processed red meat… was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes…
In population studies that include a sufficient number people who avoid all meats such that comparisons can be made between these people and those who eat red meat, fish, etc., those who avoid all meats have the lowest risks of diabetes…
In the Nurses’ Health Study I, two major dietary patterns were identified among the 69,554 participants: a “Western” dietary pattern, defined by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and desserts, french fries, and refined grains, and a “prudent” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains. After adjustment for age, family history of diabetes, calories, physical activity, body mass index, and other factors, those in the highest quintile of the Western pattern had a 49% increased risk of developing diabetes during 14 years of follow-up, compared with those in the lowest quintile.
After adjustment for the Western dietary score, the associations between meat intake and diabetes risk remained significant; the relative risk for each added daily meat serving was 1.26 for red meat and 1.38 for processed meat, suggesting, in the study authors’ words, “that these foods are associated with diabetes risk independently of the overall Western pattern”.
In the Nurses’ Health Study II, including 91,246 women followed for eight years, consumption of processed meat five or more times per week was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes… For red meat consumption 5 or more times per week, compared with <1 time per week… the relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.59… These studies indicate that, while a Western dietary pattern is associated with diabetes risk, meat consumption increases diabetes risk independently of dietary pattern.
A separate analysis examined fish consumption among 195,204 adults… Those who consumed 5 or more fish servings per week had a 22% increased risk for developing diabetes during the 14- to 18-year follow-up period, compared with those who consumed fish less than once per month…
An additional and methodologically distinct study examined diets of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study and the Multiethnic Cohort Study, finding that consumption of fish and meat was higher in individuals with diabetes, compared with those without diabetes…
Conclusions: Meat consumption is consistently associated with diabetes risk. Dietary habits are readily modifiable, but individuals and clinicians will consider dietary changes only if they are aware of the potential benefits of doing so…”
Reference: “Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes”,
Nutrients, 2014, 6(2), 897-910; doi:10.3390/nu6020897; http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/2/897/htm
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See this page for more articles regards the association of Meat Consumption with Higher rates & risks of Type 2 Diabetes and lowered/decreased risks from Plant-based (Vegan, Vegetarian) Diets.
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Reports on Carcinogenic Viruses in Animal Meats and Dairy Milk and Cancer Risk in Humans:
A 2015 article on the website of the University of Berkeley (USA) is titled “Virus in cattle linked to human breast cancer“. Some excerpts: “A new study by UC Berkeley researchers establishes for the first time a link between infection with the bovine leukemia virus [BLV] and human breast cancer…
They found that 59 percent of breast cancer samples had evidence of exposure to BLV, as determined by the presence of viral DNA. By contrast, 29 percent of the tissue samples from women who never had breast cancer showed exposure to BLV…
The new paper takes the earlier findings a step further by showing a higher likelihood of the presence of BLV in breast cancer tissue. When the data was analyzed statistically, the odds of having breast cancer if BLV were present was 3.1 times greater than if BLV was absent.
“This odds ratio is higher than any of the frequently publicized risk factors for breast cancer, such as obesity, alcohol consumption and use of post-menopausal hormones,” said Buehring.
There is precedence for viral origins of cancer. Hepatitis B virus is known to cause liver cancer, and the human papillomavirus can lead to cervical and anal cancers…
The virus could have come through the consumption of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat, or it could have been transmitted by other humans…
A 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture survey of bulk milk tanks found that 100 percent of dairy operations with large herds of 500 or more cows tested positive for BLV antibodies. This may not be surprising since milk from one infected cow is mixed in with others. Even dairy operations with small herds of fewer than 100 cows tested positive for BLV 83 percent of the time…”
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A 2017 report by Dr Michel Greger is titled “The Role of Burger Viruses in Cancer. Polyoma viruses discovered in meat can survive cooking and pasteurization.”
Some excerpts: “Nearly 20% of cancer[s]…can be linked to infectious agents,” such as viruses... Polyomaviruses are a particular concern, not only because they are “known to be carcinogenic,” but because they can survive cooking temperatures. Because single burgers these days can contain meat from “many dozens of animals,” they figured it would “present an ideal situation for virus-hunting.” So, researchers at the National Cancer Institute just walked into three supermarkets, and grabbed meat right off the shelf, and found three different polyomaviruses in ground beef…
“Many people are exposed to potentially virus-contaminated meat and dairy products” through their diet, but those in the industry would be even more exposed. So, it would be interesting to see if these groups have higher cancer incidence. And indeed, it now appears clear that those who work “in the meat industry are at increased risk of developing and dying” from a variety of cancers.
Another “reason… to suspect the involvement of [some kind of] bovine infectious factor… in colorectal cancer” is the fact that countries that don’t eat a lot of beef appear to have relatively low rates of colorectal cancer. And, countries that all of a sudden started eating lots of meat had their rates shoot up…”
See the video presentation and transcript at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-role-of-burger-viruses-in-cancer/
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Regards Kidney Stones and Meat Consumption:
Short report by Dr Michael Greger MD “How to Prevent Kidney Stones with Diet.” Summary: “Interventional studies support the population data that animal protein consumption appears to markedly increase the risk of kidney stones” – video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=liCXaoh6LPA
The text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/how-to-prevent-kidney-stones-with-diet/
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A Dr Michael Greger MD report “How to Treat Kidney Stones with Diet.” Summary: “Decreasing animal protein and sodium intake appears more effective in treating calcium oxalate and uric acid kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) than restricting calcium or oxalates…” – video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysBE6GMutpI
Text transcript is at https://nutritionfacts.org/video/how-to-treat-kidney-stones-with-diet/
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Regards Higher Concentration of Insecticides & Pesticides in Meats & Chemicals Used to treat Meat Products:
A 2011 report in Prevention magazine is titled “The Dirty Dozen – Contaminated Foods.” Some excerpts: “FDA and USDA research shows high levels of pesticide and chemicals in these commonly contaminated foods… The chemical pesticides detected in these studies are known to cause cancer, birth defects, nervous system and brain damage, and developmental problems in children…
1. Beef, Pork and Poultry. The EPA reports that meat is contaminated with higher levels of pesticides than any plant food. Many chemical pesticides are fat-soluble and accumulate in the fatty tissue of animals. Animal feed that contains animal products compounds the accumulation, which is directly passed to the human consumer.
Antibiotics, drugs, and hormones are a standard in animal husbandry, all of which accumulate and are passed on to consumers as well. Ocean fish carry a higher risk for heavy metals than pesticides, though many freshwater fish are exposed to high levels of pesticides from contaminated water.
2. Milk, Cheese and Butter. For reasons similar to those for meat, the fat in dairy products poses a high risk for contamination by pesticides. Animals concentrate pesticides and chemicals in their milk and meat. Growth hormones and antibiotics are also serious concerns and are invariably found in commercial milk, cheese, and butter…”
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“5 Dangerous Substances Big Ag Pumps Into Your Meat” is a 2014 article that describes how – in addition to the pesticides that accumulate in animal tissues from their feed as well as the antibiotics that breed drug-resistant ‘superbugs’ – meat products are also frequently treated with chemicals like chlorine, anhydrous ammonia, carbon monoxide, cetylpyridinium, propylene glycol and sodium tripolyphosphate, among others. See https://www.ecowatch.com/5-dangerous-substances-big-ag-pumps-into-your-meat-1881903038.html
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“What About Eating Just a Little Meat?” is a 2016 article by Dr Michael Greger MD at https://nutritionfacts.org/2016/10/11/what-about-eating-just-a-little-meat/
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2: News Media Reports about Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Higher Rates of Cancers.
From a 2013 article in The Independent (UK): “World Cancer Day: How meat can be murder. Warnings are now added to cigarettes, but what about meat consumption?”
Excerpts by Dr Neal Barnard: ‘Processed meat, bacon, sausage, ham and the like, is so strongly linked with bowel cancer – the 2nd largest cause of cancer death … that no one should ever eat it, according to a recent report by the World Cancer Research Fund & the American Institute for Cancer Research, based on a systematic review of more than 1,000 papers…
The World Health Organisation has determined that dietary factors account for at least 30 per cent of all cancer in Western countries and up to 20 per cent in developing countries …
Countries with a higher intake of fat, especially fat from animals, such as meat and dairy products, have a higher incidence of breast cancer. Analysis of data from almost 15,000 male physicians found that men who consumed red meat at least five times per week had a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than men who ate red meat less than once per week. Other studies have concluded that meat consumption may increase the risk of kidney and pancreatic cancer…’
Source: Independent Newspaper UK, 4th February 2013 – http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/world-cancer-day-how-meat-can-be-murder-8478738.html
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2014 news report “Red meat triggers toxic immune reaction which causes cancer, scientists find.” Excerpts: “Red meat has been linked to cancer for decades, with research suggesting that eating large amounts of pork, beef or lamb raises the risk of deadly tumours. But for the first time scientists think they know what is causing the effect. The body, it seems, views red meat as a foreign invader and sparks a toxic immune response… pork, beef and lamb contains a sugar which is naturally produced by other carnivores but not humans. It means that when humans eat red meat, the body triggers an immune response to the foreign sugar, producing antibodies which spark inflammation, and eventually cancer…”
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The Guardian newspaper (UK) 2015: “Processed meats rank alongside smoking as cancer causes – WHO. UN health body says bacon, sausages and ham among most carcinogenic substances along with cigarettes, alcohol, asbestos and arsenic…” From article at http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/oct/26/bacon-ham-sausages-processed-meats-cancer-risk-smoking-says-who
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2012 news report “Red meat is blamed for one in 10 early deaths.” Excerpts: “The Department of Health was last night urged to review its guidance on red meat after a study found that eating almost half the daily recommended amount can significantly increase the risk of dying early from cancer and heart disease… Small quantities of processed meat such as bacon, sausages or salami can increase the likelihood of dying early by a fifth, researchers from Harvard School of Medicine found. Eating steak increases the risk of early death by 12%.
The study found that cutting the amount of red meat in peoples’ diets to 1.5 ounces (42 grams) a day, equivalent to one large steak a week, could prevent almost one in 10 early deaths in men and one in 13 in women…”
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Daily Mail newspaper (UK) 2015: “Bacon, burgers and sausages are a cancer risk, say world health chiefs: Processed meats added to list of substances most likely to cause disease alongside cigarettes and asbestos.
– Fresh red meat is also due to join WHO ‘encyclopaedia of carcinogens’
– Rulings will send shock waves through farming and fast food industries
– Could lead to new dietary guidelines and warning labels on bacon packs
– Mounting concern that meat fuels disease that kills 150,000 a year in UK…”
From article at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3285490/Bacon-burgers-sausages-cancer-risk-say-world-health-chiefs-Processed-meats-added-list-substances-likely-cause-disease-alongside-cigarettes-asbestos.html
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2012 news report “A sausage a day increases risk of deadly pancreatic cancer… by 19 per cent and the risk goes up if a person eats more, experts have said.” Excerpts: “Eating 50g of processed meat every day – the equivalent to one sausage or two rashers of bacon – increases the risk by 19% compared to people who do not eat processed meat at all.
For people consuming double this amount of processed meat (100g), the increased risk jumps to 38 per cent, and is 57 per cent for those eating 150g a day…
the disease is deadly – it is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage and kills 80% of people in under a year. Only 5% of patients are still alive five years after diagnosis… They examined data from 11 studies, including 6,643 cases of pancreatic cancer… Red meat consumption was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men…”
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PBS News (USA) 2015: “Bacon, hot dogs and processed meats cause cancer, WHO says.”
Excerpts: “Bacon, sausage and other processed meats are now ranked alongside cigarettes and asbestos as known carcinogens, the World Health Organization announced today. Processed meats cause cancer, and red meat likely causes cancer, the health agency says in a new report.
The new investigation involved 22 scientists who were invited by the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer to assess the association between more than 16 types of cancer and the consumption of red meat and processed meat…
the scientific panel examined more than 800 epidemiological studies from the U.S., Europe, Japan, Australia and elsewhere. The scope covered multiple ethnicities and global diets, according to the report which was published today in the journal Lancet Oncology.
The WHO group “classified consumption of processed meat as ‘carcinogenic to humans’ on the basis of sufficient evidence for colorectal cancer.” Colorectal cancer is the second most lethal form of cancer in the U.S., causing nearly 50,000 deaths per year. Processed meat was also linked to a higher incidence of stomach cancer.
Red meat carries a slightly lower risk, the group says, but is still “probably carcinogenic to humans.” Aside from the “strong mechanistic evidence” related to colorectal cancer, the “consumption of red meat was also positively associated with pancreatic and with prostate cancer.
As a main line of evidence, the group cites one study from 2011, which combed through 28 studies on meat consumption and cancer risk dating back to 1966. That meta analysis found that colorectal cancer risk jumps by 17 percent for every 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of red meat consumed each day. Meanwhile with processed meat, colorectal cancer risk increases by 18 percent for every 50 grams (1.7 ounces) eaten each day.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer keeps a list of compounds or activities with suspected, probable and definitive links to cancer, with each possible item falling into a designated grouping based on whether or not it causes cancer.
Processed meat now falls into “group 1,” meaning it ranks as high as tobacco smoking, the most dangerous variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) and asbestos exposure in terms of causing cancer. Red meat lands in “group 2A” with inorganic lead…”
From article at: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/red-meat-bacon-hot-dogs-processed-meats-cause-cancer-dangerous-smoking/
Link to the aforementioned article in The Lancet Oncology titled “Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat” – http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(15)00444-1/fulltext
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The Times newspaper (UK) 2015: “Sausages ‘are a major cancer risk’…
Excerpts: “Eating bacon, burgers and sausages is as big a cancer risk as smoking cigarettes, global health chiefs are to rule, it was reported last night. The World Health Organisation is to list processed meat as among the most cancer-causing substances, putting it on a par with asbestos and arsenic, according to reports. Red meat is due to be ranked as only slightly less dangerous than the processed products in the “encyclopaedia of carcinogens”…”
From article at: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/news/article4594143.ece
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Adelaide Now newspaper (Australia) 2015: “Bad cancer news for bacon lovers…”
Excerpt: “The World Health Organisation is poised to declare that bacon, sausages and other processed meat cause cancer. Processed meat is also expected to be included in the same category as cigarettes, alcohol and asbestos, the Independent reported. Red meat is also expected to be included in a list of food stuffs that are “probably carcinogenic to humans”…”
From article at: http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/world/brekkie-wrap-bad-cancer-news-for-bacon-lovers/story-fni6um3i-1227580682232
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Telegraph newspaper (UK) 2013: “Processed meat blamed for one in 30 early deaths”
Excerpts: “The scientists, who followed the health of almost 450,000 people aged 35 to 69, found the more processed meat people ate, the more likely they were to die early from any cause.
This was true even after attempting to account for the fact that those who eat more meat tend to be less active, drink more and smoke.
High processed meat consumption led to a 72 per cent increased risk of dying from heart disease, and an 11 per cent increased risk of dying from cancer…
Diets laden with pies, sausages, and ready meals have been linked to deaths from cancer and heart disease…”
From article at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/9914283/Processed-meat-blamed-for-one-in-30-early-deaths.html
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Telegraph newspaper (UK) 2015: “Bacon, ham and sausages ‘as big a cancer threat as smoking’, WHO to warn.” Excerpt:” The WHO is expected to publish a report listing processed meat as a cancer-causing substance with the highest of five possible rankings…” From article at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/11950018/Bacon-ham-and-sausages-as-big-a-cancer-threat-as-smoking-WHO-to-warn.html
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Telegraph newspaper (UK) 2014: “Gene increases cancer risk posed by processed meat.”
Excerpt: “A third of the population should eat less processed meat scientists have warned after finding they carry a gene that puts them at greater risk of bowel cancer… Compared with those eating little or no processed meat, the heaviest consumers were more than twice at risk of the disease if they had the worst version of the gene variant.
Eating meat – especially processed meat in pies, bacon, sausages and cold cuts – was already known to raise bowel cancer risk, but the gene mutations increase it even more…”
From article at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10773805/Gene-increases-cancer-risk-posed-by-processed-meat.html
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Sydney Morning Herald newspaper (Australia) 2015: “Processed meats cause cancer and red meat probably does too: World Health Organisation.” Excerpt: “In reaching its conclusion, the panel cited studies suggesting that eating an additional 100 grams of red meat per day raises the risk of colorectal cancer by 17 per cent; eating an extra 50 grams of processed meat daily raises the risk by 18 per cent, according to the research cited. It quoted figures suggesting that 34,000 cancer deaths a year worldwide were attributable to diets high in processed meats…” From article at: http://www.smh.com.au/world/processed-meats-cause-cancer-and-red-meat-probably-does-too-world-health-organisation-20151026-gkj2pf.html
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3: Links to Reports on how Cancers of the Bowel, Rectum, Colon, Stomach are Increasing in Young People:
Australia: “emerging research shows bowel cancer in young people is on the rise. Recent published Australian research found that rates of bowel cancer in Australians aged 20-39 years increased between 1990 and 2010 – in those aged 30-39 there had been a 35 per cent increase… “Your risk of bowel cancer increases if you lead a sedentary lifestyle, rely on processed or packaged foods or have diabetes or obesity, so it’s not surprising that we are now starting to see the full impact of diet and lifestyle in the younger generation,” said Professor Newstead…”
Reference: Bowel Cancer Australia, 28 May 2015; https://www.bowelcanceraustralia.org/latest-news/bowel-cancer-caught-too-late-among-young-aussies-bowel-cancer-australia
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UK: “Rates of bowel cancer in young people expected to soar up to 90% in the next 15 years – with junk food and inactivity to blame… Previous research found that snacking on chocolate, biscuits and cakes could increase the risk of the disease – as could drinking fizzy drinks… It’s already known that red or processed meat, for example bacon and sausages, is linked with bowel cancer…”
Reference: Daily Telegraph, 7 November 2014 –
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USA: “Colon Cancer Cases Rising Among Young Adults… Researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center looked at data from more than 393,000 people diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer between 1975 through 2010… Based on current trends, they predict that by 2030 the incidence rates among people ages 20–34 years will increase by 90% for colon cancer and by 124.2% for rectal cancer. Among people ages 35–49 years, they predict the incidence rates will increase by 27.7% for colon cancer and by 46% for rectal cancer…” Reference: American Cancer Society, March 16, 2015 – http://www.cancer.org/cancer/news/news/colon-cancer-cases-rising-among-young-adults
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“Cancer in 15- to 29-Year-Olds … The incidence of cancer in this age group increased steadily during the past quarter century… there has been a lack of progress in survival improvement among older adolescents and young adults relative to all other ages… Survival improvement trends portend a worse prognosis for young adults diagnosed with cancer today than 25 years ago.” Reference: Archie Bleyer, M.D et al, The Oncologist Journal, June 2006 vol. 11 no. 6, 590-601 – http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/11/6/590.full
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“Stomach cancer increasing among white young adults…” Reference: Time magazine, May 5 2010 at http://healthland.time.com/2010/05/05/stomach-cancer-increasing-among-white-young-adults/
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“Age no barrier as bowel cancer rises in young people… Analysis of data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare shows bowel cancer in men under 25 increased by more than 160 per cent in the five years to 1996 and the same period a decade later. In women of the same age, the increase was more than 75 per cent…” Reference: Sydney Morning Herald newspaper, June 1, 2011 –
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“Rates of colon and rectal cancers are increasing in young adults… in the United States… and they have more advanced disease… 1973-1999… For the young, colon cancer incidence increased 17 per cent… rectal incidence rose 75 per cent…” Reference: O’Connell JB, et al, American Surgery, 2003 Oct;69(10):866-72; at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14570365
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“Rectal cancer rate increasing in young adults… ” Reference: ABC News MedPage Today, Aug 23 2010 at http://abcnews.go.com/Health/CancerPreventionAndTreatment/rectal-cancer-rates-rising-young-adults/story?id=11463628
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“Colorectal cancer rates are rising in younger people… Incidence of the cancer has gone up 17% over a decade for people under 50.” Reference: Los Angeles Times, June 22, 2009 at http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jun/22/health/he-closer22
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From a 2017 article in The Daily Mail (UK): “Cancer rates have reached a record high with more than 800 new cases a day as a result of an ageing population and obesity… Almost 300,000 diagnoses were made in 2015, which is a 22% rise from 2005… Breast cancer is the most common form of the disease, making up 15.4% of cases.
Prostate, lung and bowel are the next most common types of cancer in the UK…” From article at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4537670/Cancer-rates-reached-record-high.html
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A 2017 report in the New Zealand Herald is titled “Bowel cancer rates have risen significantly in people under the age of 50 study shows…” article at
It is based on this article in the British Journal of Surgery at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bjs.10518/abstract;jsessionid=51B9E189758FE14A8E035942DB51C123.f02t02
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From the “CureSearch” website: “the incidence of childhood cancer been steadily increasing over the last few decades, from about 13 children per 100,000 in 1975 to over 17 children per 100,000 since 2005.” “In children, cancer is the number one cause of death by disease. In fact, it is responsible for more deaths than all other diseases combined.”  References  https://curesearch.org/Incidence-Rates-Over-Time  https://curesearch.org/Childhood-Cancer-Deaths-Per-Year
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Quotes from news reports & science journals on how the Western omnivore diet with meat and dairy products accelerates climate-change through: i) increasing our carbon footprint of greenhouse gases; ii) deforesting & destroying wilderness that absorbs carbon and protects biodiversity; iii) creating massive pollution; and iv) wasting resources like grains, water, fuels and agricultural lands.
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Excerpts & links to medical studies, articles & reports on the links between meat consumption and increased incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and early mortality (a shorter lifespan); also to reports on how cancers are increasing in young people.
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Quotes & links to articles in science, medical & health journals that report great benefits vegetarians and vegans generally have including longer lives with less of the chronic degenerative diseases like cancer, cardiovascular heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and obesity as well as lower blood pressure, hypertension and blood cholesterol levels.
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Excerpts & links to articles in news media science journals about the current ‘Sixth Mass Extinction’ known also as the ‘Holocene Extinction’ or ‘Anthropocene Extinction’ as it is largely caused by human activities.
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This page contains quotes & links for studies & articles in science journals, news media & by medical doctors; on the association of drinking milk to higher rates of osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.
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This page features quotes & links to articles in news media and science journals about the rise of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics; posing a grave threat to all of us; from 50% to 80% of antibiotics are (mis-)used in animal agriculture industries.
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This page features quotes & links to reports that expose how the animal agriculture industries (meat, dairy, poultry) influence government, politics, the education schooling system and news media in order to promote their interests.
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Excerpts from articles about the marine ecosystem collapse that is happening now in oceans, seas & rivers due to over-fishing and the toxic pollution in waterways from land-based animal agriculture meat-farming; worsening climate change; threatening the entire food chain.
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Articles from science journals & news reports that dispute the health claims made regards eating fish; some even find higher rates of heart disease and cancer among seafood consumers.
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A collection of quotes & links for articles by doctors, dietitians & nutrition experts who refute & rebut the negative claims made regards “the soy food debate”
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For Archives of Related Memes see:
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This site’s original 2012 page with excerpts from articles in science journals and news media about how what we choose to eat can: i) accelerate or slow down climate change and the related environmental catastrophes we face; and ii) increase or reduce our risks for chronic illness and disease. The evidence and body of opinion against the animal agriculture livestock industry is particularly compelling and damning.
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